Let our lakes receive as true names at least as the Icarian
Sea, where "still the shore" a "brave attempt resounds."
They surged to and fro like the waves of the Icarian
Sea, when the east and south winds break from heaven's clouds to lash them; or as when the west wind sweeps over a field of corn and the ears bow beneath the blast, even so were they swayed as they flew with loud cries towards the ships, and the dust from under their feet rose heavenward.
Many papers delivered at Point Loma concerned familiar groups from eastern sections: Fairhope, Alabama; Silkville, Kansas; Bishop Hill and Stelle, Illinois; Hancock, Massachusetts; New Harmony, Indiana; Economy, Pennsylvania; Icarians
in Texas and Illinois.
JENNINGS BEGINS his history of five utopian movements--the Shakers, the Owenites, the Fourierists, the Icarians
, and Oneida--from a position of sympathy.
were a typical utopian socialist commune founded in 1848 by the French refugee Etienne Cabet.
Emblematic of the fortunes of utopian experiments in collectivism in real life (such as Icarians
, Harmonists, Perfectionists, Owenites, Ruskinites), the country's most famous single literary attempt half-way through the nineteenth century to create an ideal community, to embrace blithesome co-existence, proved to be a pathetic failure: "I am weary of this place, and sick to death of playing at philanthropy and progress"--"Paradise, indeed!
He saves himself by entering the submarine, which is home to the Icarians
, a group of people who have built an astonishing underwater utopian world.
(11) By the time the Icarians
had reached Texas in 1848, the large empresario contract system of land development was quickly becoming a thing of the past.
In short: the moment when, mid nineteenth-century 'communists' such as the Icarians
, the 'community of property' became the means by which equality might be realised, the only two models of community available via Leroux's De l'Egalite
Ranciere also explores the experience of the Icarians
who, also in the 1830s, left for the US, trying to create a social community of equals on the premise of the equality of all working people.
Secular communities included New Harmony, the Icarians
, a number of anarchist communities, and various Fourierist experiments (Oved; Nordhoff; Hines).
Cabet, on the other hand, was unique among early socialists in creating the first mass workers' movement, the Icarians
. By 1846 he had about 100,000 followers, mostly traditional artisans: tailors, weavers, hatters and shoe-makers, and their wives.