parasitoids paralyze the host before ovipositing, and their offspring develop in limited resources.
According to Wang & Messing (2004), for parasitoids, the success of the offspring development is strongly influenced by the female's choice of the most suitable host, especially for idiobiont
ectoparasitoids such as T.
larvae of the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) that are endophytic in rice grains, and the pteromalid wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), an idiobiont
ectoparasitoid of beetle larvae, infesting seeds and grains.
Thus, the smaller chamber diameter could be considered to be an indication of larval parasitoidism, presuming that the parasitoid is an idiobiont
Nontarget host risk assessment of the idiobiont
parasitoid Bracon celer (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for biological control of olive fruit fly in California.
When parasitoids were found on larvae, they were further categorized as idiobiont
(suspending leafminer development) ectoparasitoid, idiobiont
endoparasitoid, or koinobiont endoparasitoid (allowing continued development of the leafminer host before eventual host death).
Furthermore, individuals removed from the population at an early stage by predators or idiobiont
parasitoids (that kill or permanently paralyze the host during oviposition) are unavailable to natural enemies at later stages, whereas diseased immatures and those parasitized by koinobiont parasitoids (that permit continued host development following oviposition) may remain in the population for some time and be eaten by predators or killed by some non-enemy factor.
In contrast, idiobiont
parasitoid species, such as T.
Yet, the koinobiont endoparasitoid Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck, 1938) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the idiobiont
ectoparasitoid Dineulophus phthorimaeae (De Santis, 1983) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) accomplish over 50% of natural parasitism and exhibit promising attributes for either augmentative or conservation biological control in the native range of T.
2008) and de Leon & Setamou (2010) reviewed the history and effectiveness of the host specific idiobiont
ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston, 1922) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in controlling D.