Ojaide himself lists some of the stylistic devices that are copiously employed in the Urhobo Udje song-poetry, and they include invectives, irony, sarcasm, innuendo, proverbs, hyperbole, humor, deflation, wit, idiophones
, onomatopoeia, analogy, allusion, allegory, parallelism, and personification (Poetry, Performance, and Art 36).
employ rectangular bars, for which the relationship of sound and geometry is well understood.
These instruments are categorized into idiophones
that produce sounds due to vibrations on the surface of the instrument and membranophones that produce sounds due to vibrations on a stretched membrane, which include drums.
Claves" are an appropriate comparison for the dry ratcheting sound a dredge might make, and therefore plausibly "descriptive," but, like other instruments of the percussive family of idiophones
to which they belong--including marimbas and xylophones--claves also correspond in the popular imagination to the clicking of bones, a correspondence that originates in danse macabre.
Further, songs utilise various tropes as well as idiophones
such as onomatopoeic as well as figurative idiophones
that represent 'the impression of a certain non-acoustic sensation'.
Since Bukusu folktales are anonymous, the narrators embellish the stories using simple techniques, such as sequenced incidents, idiophones
, pacing, the law of contrasts and repetitions.
Reed Fiddles") is not a fiddle at all, hut rather, as ethnomusicologist Balint Sarosi taught us a long time ago, a children's toy that must be classified at the idiophones
To categorize instruments, I employ the modern classification system (Hornbostel and Sachs), which classifies all instruments into four main categories according to the way in which sound is produced: aerophones, idiophones
, membranophones and chordophones.
Pongweni (1989:1) confirms that, "Proverbs, metaphors, similes and idiophones
are generally not for the artist to create or coin ex vacuo.
The third one of these, an archaeomusicological dissertation, is a real magnum opus of the series: Riitta Rainio's meticulous study includes description and analysis of almost all known small-size struck idiophones
in Finnish museums, i.
Because of the use of descriptive language and idiophones
which conjures up an atmosphere of dance and celebration, the scenes quoted above aid the readers in visualizing the panorama at independence, and to comprehend the pleasure that followed the suffering experienced during the colonial period.
Adverbs, interjections and idiophones
could also be listed.