Moreover, heterodox writers protected themselves by camouflaging their meaning with irony and ambiguity, leading Bishop William Warburton to fulminate against '"illimited
, UND1STINGUISHABLE IRONY, which affords no insight into the author's meaning, or so much room as to guess what he would be at'" (119).
Coincidentally, both Brathwaite and Doris express suspicion of scholarly types: Brathwaite names the 'Schoole-master of folly' as the 'experienced instructer to lust, harbourer of illimited
desires, and consequently harbenger to the Divell'.
These "echoes from the Church" are derived from the line "At once a voice arose among / The bleak twigs overhead / In a full-hearted evensong / Of joy illimited
." Evensong is of course an Anglican form of Benediction although, for purists Hardy's allusion is somewhat compromised by the thrush's "carolings." Carols derive from French dancing songs associated with festivals, not necessarily with church worship.