They cover varieties of speech act norms, commitment and obligation in speech act theory; coordination and norms in illocutionary
interaction; speech acts in discourse; silence as speech action, silence as non-speech action: a study of some silences in Maeterlinck's Pelleas et Melisande; the dynamics of conversation: a case study of fixing the force in irony; forms of aggressive speech actions in public communication; a theory that beats a theory: lineages, the growth of signs, and dynamic legal interpretation; and whether implicative verbs presuppose triggers: evidence form Polish.
In this paper, I would like to cast doubt on this assumption and propose an illocutionary
distinction between predictions and what I will call "prospections." I do this in two stages: first, by showing that definitions in traditional accounts of predictive illocutions are in need of more restrictive amendments; and second, by showing that a dynamic approach to meaning can, in effect, account for the different elements that, in given conversational frame, map the (primitive) future meaning of a sentence into either predictive or prospective illocutionary
Speech acts are, according to Austin, "[...] functional units of communication that have prepositional or locutionary meaning (the literal meaning of the utterance), illocutionary
meaning (the social function of the utterance), and perlocutionary force (the effect produced by the utterance in a given context (Austin, 1962, in Cohen, 1996: 384).
It provides clear explanations of many of the issues that are usually found to be challenging by the average student of semantics and pragmatics, such as the subject of logical positivism and the concept of truth conditions (37), or the difference between illocutionary
and perlocutionary acts (46).
She classifies verbs into five self- contained categories: neutral, structuring, illocutionary
, discourse signalling and descriptive verbs.
It should be stated though that the illocutionary
force of a warning of this nature is sometimes implied, as such its interpretation would require contextual information.
Having turned to speech-act theory, while noting the effect of illocutionary
force therein, Miller opened a theoretical vantage point for studying, together, genre and culture.
In order to establish his 'taxonomy' of illocutionary
acts, Austin also distinguishes between locution (simple utterance), illocutionary
acts (what is being accomplished or performed in making the utterance) and perlocutionary effects (the various effects--whether intended or not--that are in fact ultimately accomplished through and by the utterance).
I then reflect on the status of "hurtful speech", which I see as including the performative utterances that stop short of being hateful but nonetheless erode, through their illocutionary
force and perlocutionary effects, the social standing and bases for self-respect of those who are targeted.
All." Conferring a certain illocutionary
force to the word, "all" begins to frame a recurrent motive: the continual rehearsal of poetry's evocative potential, materialized here precisely as the persistent exploration of the distinct and changing multiplicities that the word "all" can summon in each poem and in each utterance.
While, on one level, speaking or writing is already an action (a locutionary act), on another level, we also perform actions in saying something (an illocutionary
act) or by--or in consequence of--saying something (a perlocutionary act).