The prominent CD19 positive population expresses low density Kappa immunoglobulin light chains
The insoluble fibril proteins originate from improper folding of soluble precursors because some proteins with a normal amino acid sequence are prone to misfolding when they are produced in an excessive amount (eg, immunoglobulin light chains
, serum amyloid A, and wild-type transthyretin).
Sensitive immunoassays specific for free immunoglobulin light chains
can help identify unbalanced immunoglobulin production.
The urine dipstick is specific for albumin and will miss positively charged proteins in the urine, such as immunoglobulin light chains
Detection of B-cell clonality by showcasing the restricted expression of one of the two immunoglobulin light chains
(kappa or lambda) provides valuable molecular information for the diagnosis of NHLs.
Identification of B-cell clonality by showing the restricted expression of one of the two immunoglobulin light chains
(kappa or lambda) provides useful molecular data for the diagnosis of NHLs.
The variable (V) region of the immunoglobulin light chains
comprises four key sections that come together to form a hydrophobic core and to allow for the variety of antigen binding, containing three highly variable segments, termed complementary determining regions (CDR), which are attached to joining sections (J).
Immunoglobulin light chains
[kappa] and [lambda] as well as three classical markers of inflammation were found to be significantly high in JIA patients who were in the active stage of disease when compared to data of healthy children and to JIA patients who were in remission (Table 1 and 2).
Few immunoglobulin light chains
involved in proximal tubulopathies have been analyzed at the molecular level.
Outcome in systemic AL amyloidosis in relation to changes in concentration of circulating free immunoglobulin light chains
But the growing clinical acceptance of a serum free light chain assay has all but eliminated urine tests in identifying such plasma cell disorders as multiple myeloma (MM), smoldering myeloma, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and primary systemic amyloidosis (AL); and because the assay has proven to be more sensitive than IFE for detecting free or unbound immunoglobulin light chains
when it is used in conjunction with SPEP, up to 99% of myelomas can be detected.
In a case with a diagnosis that included MBL, one of the populations was negative for surface immunoglobulin light chains
and positive for CD5, whereas the other population was monotypic for k light chains.