Markovits uses Jim's story not simply to resist utilitarianism, but to resist impartialist
moral theories generally.
The modern hegemony of impartialist
moral ideas has therefore given rise to a new and distinctive form of subjugation, associated with understanding morality solely in terms of sacrificing oneself to satisfy burdensome duties owed others--as an external force in one's life, to which one must submit.
And there are further considerations that could be thrown on the scales of the impartialist
By contrast, Peter Singer's recent work, One World, advances an impartialist
view of morality, which demands that we dispassionately dispense aid to the most needy (2002, p.
And the kind of friendship Merrill's style inclines toward is indeed based on small partialist communities of friends rather than on a more democratic and impartialist
notion of respect.
ethic (developed thoroughly in other essays) dictates that we must give equal moral consideration to all beings with a capacity for suffering: To do otherwise is morally akin to racism.
Most writers in the major impartialist
strands of political theory, liberalism and utilitarianism, have ignored questions of entrance policy and have concentrated instead, despite the universalist language of these theories, on the reciprocal duties of citizens (Black 1991; Booth 1997).
Somehow it does not easily mesh with the dominantly individualistic and impartialist
tradition of moral theory.
This subordination of nationalist aims to universal cosmopolitan obligations is required, Tan argues, by an impartialist
account of justice.
In section 1, the author describes the problem of distance and some impartialist
and partialist responses to it.
The relation between reflective spirituality and ethics is more promising, since the former can expand the scope of ethics beyond a strictly formal or impartialist
account, while ethics can encourage the study of spirituality to move beyond historical, psychological, and sociological description to normative reflection.
Nonetheless, it is not obvious that this extreme impartialist
perspective is required by moral universalism.