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(2) Additionally, he has proposed that such a "gradual transformation of an expansion language, Incaic imperial Quechua, into a morphologically more simple variety as it spread northward into Ecuador" (Muysken 2009: 77) is best seen as showing not only contact-induced change without substrate influence ("koineization") but also contact-induced change with substrate influence ("creolization"), and has offered some likely candidates for this development of Ecuadorian Quechua (henceforth EQ):
Local ceramic styles are abundant in this enclosure (i.e., Santamariano, Famabalasto negro grabado, and Belen styles), while foreign material is scarce, including only a minor percentage of Incaic pottery style.