As its report for the fourth review conference set for late 2018 noted, the board "maintains the view that the technical discussion on the potential use of toxic chemicals for law enforcement purposes has been exhaustive: the term 'non-lethal' is inappropriate when referring to chemicals intended for use as incapacitants
(28.) Id.; Chemical and Biological Weapons Nonproliferation Program, The Moscow Theater Hostage Crisis: Incapacitants
and Chemical Warfare,
L'age avance du donateur ou du testateur est donc susceptible d'accentuer d'autres elements incapacitants
(33.) MICHAEL CROWLEY, DANGEROUS AMBIGUITIES: REGULATION OF RIOT CONTROL AGENTS AND INCAPACITANTS
UNDER THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION 10 (October 2009), available at http://www.brad.ac.uk/acad/nlw/publications/BNLWRPDangerous1.pdf.
Tear gases and irritant incapacitants
. 1-chloroacetophenone, 2-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile and dibenz[b,f]-1,4oxazepine.
In the first half of the book, biological and chemical weapons are overtly confused, as are riot control agents (tear and vomiting) and incapacitants
Recently, concern has risen over the use of incapacitants
in high concentrations.
New developments of nonlethal incapacitants
, which would normally fall under pharmaceuticals, continue to erode the validity of the CWC.
But there is a demand for a middle line between low level incapacitants
and the lethal level which firearms represent.
By generating NL protective and suppressive fires as well as special-purpose fires (incapacitants
, countermobility and thermobaric effects), the FA will be poised to participate in all aspects of the future spectrum of conflict.
And while the use of incapacitants
in Russia might have been legal under international law because it was a police action, the Pentagon's development of what the military calls "nonlethal calmatives" appears to violate chemical weapons treaties prohibiting the military use of such agents.