Sophie said: "You are constantly reminded that the settlers stole land from Native Americans and they have Angolans they brought over from Africa as indentured workers
Racism has been a part of American culture, society, and religion from its beginning: the genocide of Native Americans, the slavery of African Americans, the indentured workers
from Asia, and the cheap labor of Hispanics and Latinos.
When industrial scale tea cultivation began, workers from all part of British India came to Assam in the northeast as indentured workers
, contractually obligated to work to pay the owner's cost of their transport.
In addition to notes and a bibliography of print and electronic sources, Miller appends primary and secondary indexing of such details as Williamsburg, Quakers, Pequot, enslaved children, Puritans, and indentured workers
They arrived as indentured workers
with no voice or will of their own and remained more or less the same during their sojourn in British Guiana.
Although I have written about it in many different forms, I wanted to write about the earliest years of Indian diaspora when indentured workers
went away from India to settle in various places around the world.
They begin arriving as indentured workers
in Guyana in 1838 and in Suriname in 1873, mainly from the northern Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, and comprised about 80% Hindus and 20% Muslims.
The value of engaging these tensions productively cannot be overestimated when mission, church and culture are so intertwined in complex relationships, as was the case with mission to Canada's Aboriginal Peoples and mission to enslaved Africans and Indian indentured workers
on sugar plantations in the Caribbean and Latin America.
Another controversial step to replace the labour of slaves imported from Africa was the importation of indentured workers
particularly from India, who were of ten treated no better than slaves.
Among these figures of displacement, indentured workers
can be a locus to trace how the force of global capitalism produced the (im)migration and the contact zone for transnational identity to develop inside and between different nations and cultures.
In 1838, the British and colonized Indian governments permitted sugar planters in British Guiana to bring Indian indentured workers
from India to their plantations.
The migration of some 142,000 Chinese indentured workers
to Cuba between 1847 and 1874 is generally acknowledged to be one of the most disgraceful chapters in the history of modern labor migration.