At that July 2013 meeting, Heads also agreed to establish a CARICOM Reparation Commission (CRC) and National Committees on Reparation in each country to establish the moral, ethical and legal case for the claim for reparation from the former colonial European countries, for the nations and people of the Caribbean Community for native genocide, the transatlantic trade in enslaved African people and a radicalized system of chattel enslavement, and Asian indentureship
As Edouard Glissant reminds us in his Le Discours antillais (1981), landscape can be considered as visible evidence of historical events such as slavery, indentureship
, and the oppression associated with these systems: "Notre paysage .
1993, <<Immigration and Indentureship
in the French West Indies 1848-1870>>: 161-168, in H.
She argues that violence against children in the Caribbean should be understood within the context of the region's colonial history and periods of enslavement and indentureship
Of course these weren't the only perspectives and as I developed more knowledge of Caribbean Studies then research on slavery, indentureship
South Africa is not usually considered in analyses of the Black Atlantic, yet West Indian planters resettled there as part of the development of colonial plantation economy and indentured South Asian laborers were brought there to work after the system of Indian indentureship
had been pioneered in the Caribbean.
For the entire period of indentureship
to the Caribbean, the female population constituted between 25 to at most 40 percent of the male population.
The Indo-Caribbean case, notes Manuel as a result of his observations, represents an "isolated transplant" diaspora in the IndoCaribbean culture up to the mid-twentieth century, one that developed primarily in isolation from North Indian Bhojpuri culture following the end of the indentureship
period in the early twentieth century.
Nevertheless, Seecharan (1997) outlines the success of Indians after indentureship
Migrant agricultural workers have compared the conditions they experience to slavery and indentureship
Forged at the intersection of settler raciality and gendered nationality, the category 'non-preferred race' was transformed into 'immigrant', rendering invisible histories of slavery and indentureship
, as well as colonization and displacement in country of origin and resettlement alike.
Unlike the Africans, who had been brought to the islands against their will and enslaved, the Indians had come as indentured labourers, armed with the promise, the guarantee even, of a return trip to India, or, if they chose, after the completion of their indentureship
, a parcel of land, gratis.