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a.1.(Mach.) Designating, or pertaining to, any engine (called an Internal-combustion engine) in which the heat or pressure energy necessary to produce motion is developed in the engine cylinder, as by the explosion of a gas, and not in a separate chamber, as in a steam-engine boiler. The gas used may be a fixed gas, or one derived from alcohol, ether, gasoline (petrol), naphtha, oil (petroleum), etc. There are three main classes: (1) gas engines proper, using fixed gases, as coal, blast-furnace, or producer gas; (2) engines using the vapor of a volatile fluid, as the typical gasoline (petrol) engine; (3) oil engines, using either an atomized spray or the vapor (produced by heat) of a comparatively heavy oil, as petroleum or kerosene. In all of these the gas is mixed with a definite amount of air, the charge is composed in the cylinder and is then exploded either by a flame of gas (flame ignition - now little used), by a hot tube (tube ignition) or the like, by an electric spark (electric ignition, the usual method is gasoline engines, or by the heat of compression, as in the Diesel engine. Gas and oil engines are chiefly of the stationary type. Gasoline engines are largely used for automobile vehicles, boats, etc. Most internal-combustion engines use the Otto (four-stroke) cycle, though many use the two-stroke cycle. They are almost universally trunk engines and single-acting. Because of the intense heat produced by the frequent explosions, the cylinders must be cooled by a water jacket (water-cooled) or by air currents (air cooled) to give the maximum thermodynamic efficiency and to avoid excessive friction or seizing.
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, published 1913 by G. & C. Merriam Co.
References in periodicals archive ?
The compact hybrid module, located between the internal-combustion engine and the transmission, can generate 34 kilowatts of power and a maximum torque of 300 Newton meters.
The vans use both a traditional gasoline-powered internal-combustion engine and a battery-powered electric motor.
Scuderi says its design is able to achieve compression cylinder pressures equal to that of a conventional internal-combustion engine during the combustion cycle, thus creating large amounts of turbulence for improved atomization of the fuel/air mix.
Hybrid vehicles have drive trains powered by both an internal-combustion engine and a rechargeable battery.
The fuel cell, which chemically converts hydrogen to electricity (with water as a byproduct), has the potential to eventually replace the internal-combustion engine, because its far more than just the best environmental choice.
The internal-combustion engine was synonymous with the automobile throughout the 20th century.
government needs to seek alternatives to the internal-combustion engine and push Detroit automakers to produce zero-emission electric cars.
Forklift buyers have long had to make a fundamental choice between internal-combustion and electric models.
Gasoline automobiles (and the internal-combustion engine which burns gasoline) took over the auto industry for three primary reasons: (1) in 1901, vast oil reserves were discovered in Texas; (2) in 1912, a viable electric starter for gasoline engines was introduced; and (3) Henry Ford decided to mass-produce gasoline-burning cars.
The coming of the internal-combustion engine, especially the Otto four-stroke engine (see 1876), offered a much better hope.
Ironically, this contribution to the development of the internal-combustion engine became an environmental boomerang.