(54) Some treaties provide very limited guidance on the use of a shared source of water, but others, such as the International Joint Commission
and Indus Waters Treaty, provide an extensive framework that has helped protect the right to safe access to water for all nations involved.
Gibbons was also the chair of the predecessor organization to the International Joint Commission
, the International Waterways Commission--which failed in the decade of its existence to resolve a single dispute.
The nation says the International Joint Commission
made it clear that water from Shoal Lake was to be used only for Winnipeg, St.
It appears that the term "ecosystem approaches" was first used in writing in 1978 in a Great Lakes Research Advisory Board report to the International Joint Commission
, which argued that water cannot be adequately managed without considering broader ecosystem and human-environment interactions.
The dock's revival has the support of Joe Comuzzi, a former Thunder Bay-Superior North MP, who is now the Canadian-chairman of the International Joint Commission
International Joint Commission
for Theological Dialogue between the Catholic Church and the Oriental Orthodox Churches, 2003-2008
* International Joint Commission
Canada and United States (IJC)
Both the United States and Canada have long recognized their mutual interest in managing this region, as reflected in the Boundary Water Treaty and the establishing and functioning of International Joint Commission
. However, neither the U.S.
The papers discuss patterns of treaty making over international rivers, bilateral cooperation on river development between South Africa and Lesotho, the political economy of water supply in the Pacific Island region, the nature of national domestic conflicts over water resources in Bangladesh and China, comparative river basin management in the US and South Korea, the International Joint Commission
formed by Canada and the United States to resolve boundary water conflicts, the establishment of the Mekong River Commission in Southeast Asia, Cold War hydropolitics in Southern Africa, water management conflicts in the Niger River Basin of West Africa, and water as commodity and source of conflict in Australia.
The unique risks posed by PBTSs were first acknowledged by the governments of the United States and Canada in the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (1978), which stated: "The discharge of any or all persistent toxic substances (should) be virtually eliminated" (International Joint Commission
United States and Canada, 1989).
The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and not of the International Joint Commission
, WestEd, or CDR Associates.