The authors advised that chondroitin sulfate may be used in patients for pain relief and improvement in functioning and that intra-articular glucocorticoids should not generally be used but may be considered in patients with painful interphalangeal joints
. Surgery should be considered for patients with structural abnormalities when other treatment modalities have not been sufficiently effective in relieving pain.
In the upper extremity, tophi are usually located in the subcutaneous tissues, more commonly around the elbow and proximal interphalangeal joints
At one year follow-up, after surgery and radiotherapy, the patient presented stiffness in the active flexion of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints
of the fourth right digit.
* 1 to 3 small joints (metacarpophalangeal [MCP] joints, proximal interphalangeal [PIP] joints, 2nd5th metatarsophalangeal joints, thumb interphalangeal joints
, wrists)=2 points
Subsequently, joint pain, joint swelling, stiffness and enlargement of the proximal interphalangeal joints
(Figure 1a) developed over time.
Thicker socks, or an extra pair of socks can either press the toes together, or curl them up making the interphalangeal joints
These procedures included finger metacarpophalangeal joint arthroplasty using a Swanson silicone implant in five cases, arthrodesis of thumb metacarpophalangeal or interphalangeal joints
in four, arthrodesis of finger proximal interphalangeal or distal interphalangeal joints
in four, extensor tendon transfer in three, and synovectomy of the finger metacarpophalangeal joint in two cases.
Model was used to evaluate the kinematics of the phalanges such as angular displacement of interphalangeal joints
. In order to evaluate the actual prosthetic finger movement, an experiment was conducted using a movement analysis software package, "Kinovea." At first, markers were placed on each digit of prosthetic index finger (see Figure 15).
Furthermore, swelling with redness of the distal interphalangeal joints
(DIP) of the right index and left little finger was evident (Figure 1).
Caption: Figure 2: Preoperative radiograph of the right hand showing gouty arthritis and inflammatory osteolysis with numerous calcified soft tissue swellings, especially in the proximal interphalangeal joints
of the index, middle, and little fingers.
His hands and feet appeared short, with middle, painless tumefaction of soft tissue around the index proximal interphalangeal joints
. No spinal abnormalities were noted, but a mild pectus excavatum was present.
proximal interphalangeal joints
bilaterally, tenderness on the wrist joints bilaterally, swan neck deformity on second finger of the right hand, and bilateral ulnar deviation.