That is because the elementary particles (the quarks and electrons) have their own intrinsic mass. At least that is what we once thought, but it turns out that even that is not true.

Simplistically, it was thought that excitations/particles could have an intrinsic mass of their own, but it turns out that they cannot.

To summarize, the particles that constitute matter have no intrinsic mass. Mass is only an effective phenomenon caused by interactions between fields.

This leads to an

intrinsic mass of the Milky Way of 9.17 x [10.sup.10][M.sub.[dot encircle]].

However, interactions between the quarks in nucleons and the zero-temperature vacuum add a large amount of mass to the nucleons' quarks--making them about 60 times their

intrinsic mass.

The observer's intrinsic frame (-[phi][??]*, -[phi]c[phi][??]*) containing relativistic intrinsic mass -[phi]m* = -[gamma] [phi][m.sup.*.sub.0] in -[phi]x* will then be made manifest in observer's frame [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] on flat spacetime of the negative universe, containing negative three-dimensional relativistic mass, -m* = -[gamma][m.sup.*.sub.0], of the particle.

7 of [3]), is the intrinsic mass relation in the context of absolute intrinsic motion to be derived formally elsewhere.

Corresponding to relations (3) and (4) in the contexts of absolute intrinsic motion and absolute motion, there are the intrinsic mass relation in the context of relative intrinsic motion (or in the context of intrinsic special theory of relativity ([phi]SR)) and mass relation in the context of relative motion (or in the context of SR).

Every particle or object with a three-dimensional inertial mass m in the Euclidean 3-space [SIGMA] has its one-dimensional intrinsic mass to be denoted by [phi]m underlying it in the one-dimensional intrinsic space [phi][rho].

It is still valid to say that the flat four-dimensional spacetime ([SIGMA], ct) is the outward (or physical) manifestation of the flat two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime ([phi]p, [phi]c [phi]t) and that three-dimensional inertial mass m in [SIGMA] is the outward (or physical) manifestation of one-dimensional intrinsic mass [phi]m with respect to observers in ([SIGMA], ct) in Fig.

The answer to this question shall be sought from the the generalized intrinsic mass relation in the context of the intrinsic Special Theory of Relativity ([phi]SR) and from the corresponding generalized mass relation in the context of the Special Theory of Relativity (SR) in the two-world picture in this section and by requiring the symmetry of laws between the positive and negative universes in the next section.

The corresponding intrinsic mass relation on the flat two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime ([phi][rho], [phi]c[phi]t) in the context of the intrinsic Special Theory of Relativity ([phi]SR) is