While recognition of technocomplexes representing the Norton tradition eludes full consensus among Alaskan archaeologists, this set typically includes the regionally specific Choris, Norton, Near-Ipiutak, and Ipiutak phases (Larsen and Rainey, 1948; Darwent and Darwent, 2016; Dumond, 2016; Fig.
In Northwest Alaska, archaeological assemblages attributed to the Choris and Norton likewise suggest an increased reliance on marine mammals, and by the appearance of the Ipiutak phase in this region, we also see the appearance of large coastal villages (Larsen and Rainey, 1948).
Body proportions of circumpolar peoples as evidenced from skeletal data: Ipiutak
and Tigara (Point Hope) versus Kodiak Island Inuit.
Archeologists won't be certain how old the Kivalina remains are until radiocarbon dating is done, but they believe the bodies were members of the Ipiutak
- a group that lived in Alaska from about 500 to 900 A.D.
The majority of the archaeological artifacts are grouped into two temporally distinct cultural components, the Ipiutak
(2100-1500BP) and the Tigara (800-300BP).
Early in the first millennium, the town (several hundred houses) of Ipiutak
on Point Hope, Alaska, contained quantities of carved bone, antler, and ivory similar to the Scythian animal style of northern Eurasia, and one fragment of smelted iron.
Thus, Denbigh Flint Complex, Choris, Norton, and Ipiutak
would be considered part of the Paleo-Inuit tradition; and Old Bering Sea, Punuk, Birnirk, and Thule, part of the Inuit tradition.
The excavations of the Trail Creek caves were to be completed that summer, and the Ipiutak
culture men's house at Deering was also excavated.
As one of the editors has pointed out with regard to the Yamal Peninsula farther west (Fitzhugh, 1997), results here contradict a notion stressed 40 years earlier by Gjessing (1944) and echoed in the substantial Point Hope Ipiutak
report of Larsen and Rainey (1948), that there was a widespread circumpolar cultural movement involving far northern Eurasia as well as America.
Lawrence Island and among the Ipiutak
of Point Hope on the mainland c.