[DELTA][mu] - Excess energy transfer coefficient compared to isentropic process
Suppose that sound propagation is an isentropic process
, for which [v.sup.2.sub.s] = [partial derivative]p/[partial derivative][rho] = [B.sub.A]/[rho]; bulk modulus [B.sub.A] = [rho][v.sup.2.sub.s] is reciprocal to the acoustic compliance from (2) and can be expressed as follows:
(2) Calculations of convective condensation height in the isentropic process
show that the [PM.sub.2.5] density during the heavy pollution event is inversely correlated with H_PML; the lower the H_PML is, the higher the [PM.sub.2.5] density will be.
For example, we propose an assumption called local isentropic process
, which enables the conclusion that the flow field behind the detonation front of aluminized explosive is only a function of the reacted aluminum mass fraction at each time.
First of all the compression process must be as close to isentropic process
and another way to use inter-cooling between two stages of compression [10-13].
The isentropic efficiency is defined as the ratio of the enthalpy difference of isentropic process
and the enthalpy difference of real process across the compressor.
Because work is extracted from the expanding high pressure gas, the expansion is an approximation by an isentropic process
(a constant entropy process).
The specific enthalpy ([h.sub.out]) in the outlet state is determined by the two-phase outlet pressure ([P.sub.out]) or temperature ([T.sub.out]) of the expander according to ideal isentropic process
. The power output of the expander ([W.sub.exp]) is consumed by the electrical generator and measured by the integrated torque and speed transducer between the expander and generator.
The ideal compression process is regarded as an isentropic process
and the realistic compression process needs a factor of compressor adiabatic efficiency to account for the additional enthalpy increase compared to that of the ideal process.
Here, by assuming the non-condensable gas inside the vapor bubble as an ideal gas which goes an isentropic process
and by employing the above defined nondimensional parameters, Eq.
For an isentropic process
, the enthalpy of the ammonia leaving the compressors, h[s.sub.2L], is calculated using [P.sub.2L] and [s.sub.1L].
Currently, the conventional single-stage heat pump  can only provide hot water of about 50[degrees]C but is also limited by the temperature of heat-source water; when the heat source water temperature is reduced, the pressure ratio of the compressor is increased, the gas transmission coefficient is reduced, so that the degree of which compression cycle process deviated from the isentropic process
increases, the heat of cycle declines, the power consumption is increased, and the performance of the system decreases rapidly.