Schumann's other favorite author, Jean-Paul Richter
, also saw music as a salvation: "[I]n the immeasurable ether of the art of music, all may soar or expand." Richter, too, is explicitly fascinated with the doppelganger, and in fact, his novel, Flegeljahre, upon which Schumann based Papillons, is about twins, Walt and Vult, for whom "two bodies unite in one soul;" they cannot tell "which of us two is the true Du." Richter, though, doesn't delve so deeply into the world of madness; instead he sees daily life as full of disguises and is fascinated with the ambiguity of masks.
It is this conviction that underpins his early studies of that wonderfully eccentric German writer and humorist, Jean-Paul Richter
, and the critic, angliciste and writer of fantastic tales, Philarete Chasles.