So in the market-place there reigns perpetual excitement, a nameless hubbub, made up of the cries of mixed-breed porters and carriers, the beating of drums, and the twanging of horns, the neighing of mules, the braying of donkeys, the singing of women, the squalling of children, and the banging of the huge rattan, wielded by the jemadar
or leader of the caravans, who beats time to this pastoral symphony.
Muhammad Khan in Lahore Cantonment to Jemadar
Malik Mehr Khan, 15th Lancers, France, 1st April, 1915:
The indigenous force mixed British and Indian officers, but the latter (with names like "jemadar
") could not command white troops, nor indeed initially could their men fight white opponents.
We also honour the three soldiers Sepoy Khudad Khan, Jemadar
Mir Dast and Naik Shahamad Khan from the areas comprising Pakistan who were awarded Britain's highest award for gallantry, the Victoria Cross, during the First World War'.
But even lone travellers typically hired a jemadar
(personal servant), pack animal(s) (with their respective drivers) and chauprassies (caste-specific servants).
During WW1 three soldiers from Pakistan Sepoy Khudadad Khan Naik Shahamad Khan and Jemadar
Mir Dast were awarded the VC for extraordinary acts of courage.
7 Letter (Henceforth Ltr.) to Brigadier Eastern Command from Jemadar
District Jullundur, Punjab, 22 September 1947, quoted in Sir Francis Tuker, While Memory Serves, (London 1967) p.433.
Against Imamura's contention, the chief witness appearing in most of the Indian cases, Jemadar
Chint Singh, maintained that although some Indian officers had collaborated with the Japanese, the leaders of those refusing to join the INA had, in effect, been forced to join by threat of starvation and torture.
Or what about Jemadar
Ali Haidar, who won the Victoria Cross in Italy in 1944, or even Darwan Sing Negi, who won his VC in France in 1914?
According to Jemadar
Chint Singh, a key witness in the story of Indians in New Guinea, the Indians were at first accommodated in a swamp about eight kilometres from Wewak Point, between the sea and a creek.
When we stood reading the virtually endless list we came across, names like Havildar Ghulam Muhammad (129 DCO) Lahore, Jemadar
Khan Muhammad (FF) Lahore, Sepoy Muhammad Asfar (FF) Lahore, Sepoy Muhammad Shah (55C) Lahore, Sepoy Nur Muhammad Khan (18-II), Lahore.
The plaque honours the bravery of Sepoy Khudadad Khan the first South Asian and Muslim recipient of the Victoria Cross Jemadar
Mir Dast and Naik Shahamad Khan, who were all awarded Britain's highest award for gallantry during the First World War.