This coastal area had been important to Jiaozhi
(one of the names used by China for Vietnam) under Chinese rule (second century BCE to early tenth century CE) as well as independent Dai Viet, whose first capital for 41 years (968-1009 CE) was in Hoa Lif (Ninh Binh province).
through the eighth century C.E., Jiaozhi
(a collective term for the maritime ports of northern Vietnam and coastal Guangxi), and not Guangzhou, was the primary conduit for all maritime trade arriving from Southeast Asia (Li 2011, 40).
The Suishu gives the itinerary to Poli from Jiaozhi
[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], that is, modern northern Vietnam, in contrast to the Liangshu that had referred to Guangzhou [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in Guangdong as the port of embarkation.
The eleven poets who produced at least two poems each are Wang Xizhi, Sun Chuo, Xie An [??], Xie Wan [??], Sun Tong [??], Yuan Jiaozhi
[??], Wang Ningzhi [??], Wang Suzhi [??], Wang Huizhi [??], Wang Binzhi [??], and Xu Fengzhi [??].
Executive producer, Ji Duo, Zhang Jiaozhi
, Li Xianghong.
During the Chunyou reign era (1241-1251 AD) of the Southern Song Dynasty, Wang Deyong from Yongjia, who had failed in the imperial examinations repeatedly, decided to be a merchant in Jiaozhi
(the present Vietnam).
And as Li Tana convincingly points out in her argument about the Han-era Jiaozhi
region (encompassing northern Vietnam and southern China), such developments can only be perceived clearly if China-centred views are cast off, allowing us to see the other 'principalities' along the coastline that stretched between the southeastern China coast and central Vietnam (chap.
While the consensus is that there existed a pre-tenth century region that included modern northern Vietnam and southern China that the Chinese called Jiaozhi
, after the tenth century the newly independent Dai Viet realm is shown to have had inconsistent boundaries and in various ways separated from the history and culture of the Chinese administered regions to its north.
For example, men and women of Jiaozhi
[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], in what we think of as northern Vietnam, would bathe together in the same river.
(79) Other Song sources mention the tribute mission of 1106; (80) the Song shi [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], in particular, states that Bagan should not be treated like a minor country, and must be accorded respect given to countries such as Dashi (Arab countries) and Jiaozhi
When he saw the many shining and dazzling treasures in Jiaozhi
, he wanted to grab them with both hands and put them in his bosom.
As will be shown below, the Gulf of Tonkin region was an extension and an integral part of an area called the Jiaozhi
Yang), an active trading zone located right in the heart of the more ancient Western Sea Route (Xiyang Hanglu in Chinese) up to the fifteenth century, and frequented by Muslim traders from South, West and Southeast Asia.