Pinchback and Robert Smalls, among the first African Americans to hold political offices, Oscar De Priest and Adam Clayton Powell, Jr, who served during the Jim Crow period
as well as Edward M.
And the third group consists of those who recognize the need for apology but are very skeptical and have no faith if the African Americans would ever be compensated for injuries incurred during slavery and Jim Crow period
because of the herculean legal obstacles (Dawson & Popoff, 2004).
Hansford believes that the old policies of the Jim Crow period
still "continue to have an impact."
There is a strange contradiction when contemporary writers return to a Jim Crow period
to comment on post-civil rights concerns: the simplicity of Jim Crow thinking is simultaneously absurd and useful.