Jainism, an ancient religion which emphasizes non-violence and which derives its name from jinas
(spiritual victors), aims at liberating the soul by freeing it from accumulated karma.
In discussing Borobudur's jina images, the mudras displayed by the directional Jinas or Tathagatas are described, as is the vitarka mudra displayed by the 64 Jina images seen in the niches of the uppermost wall.
Snellgrove's belief that the structure was the site of the royal consecration ritual, Indra Abhisheka (Anointing of Indra), with Buddhist substitutes for the Jinas of the cardinal directions and the zenith, is also described.
The dictionary includes biographical information for key Jain historical figures, specifics about the many Jain sectarian groups throughout history, details about the most popular Jinas
and guardian deities, definitions of key philosophical, institutional, and ritual terms, and the names and significances of Jain pilgrimage sites.
Jainism promotes a life of nonviolence, revolving around the teachings of 24 Tirthankaras (tur--tahn--ka--rahs) of "spiritual victors," also known as jinas (ji--nahs), from which the name Jain is derived.
Centered in the narrow band immediately above the empty niche is the seated figure of another important jina, worshipped by eight flying figures bearing garlands of flowers.
The shells represent the pancaparamesihins, or five "supreme lords": the Jinas, the siddhas or other liberated souls, the acaryas or mendicant leaders, the upadhyayas or mendicant preceptors, and all sadhus.
In the temple each recites the caturvimsati-stava, the hymn of veneration to the twenty-four Jinas.
These studies include the Southern Digambara Dvadasika and Nandisvaradvipastuti, which contain early lists of the places the twenty-four Tirthankaras attained nirvana; Aryanandila's Vairotyadevistava, a hymn to an early Jain goddess; Kumudacandra's Cikura Dvatrimsika to the first Jina
Adinatha; Sagaracandra's hymn to all twenty-four Jinas
, the Caturvimsati Jinastava; a hymn to the Jina
, Vitaragastuti, by an unnamed disciple of Jaitrasuri; and Samayasundara's description of Valinaha, a local protector deity on Mount Abu.
It also presents (building on Babb's 1996 study Absent Lord) the ongoing debate over the efficacy of puja to the eternally liberated and autonomous Jinas
, and lay understandings of why such devotion (as well as that directed toward "unliberated" Jain deities such as the popular and Hanuman-like Ghantakarn Mahavir) remains beneficial.
She employs a typology of tirthas; sacred mountains, cities associated with the lives of the Jinas
, other cities, miracle-stories about images, and accounts of Parsvanatha and several unliberated deities.
The word "Jain" derives from the Sanskrit word jina