251: '(...) it was the trade in iron more than everything else which gave the early Jinghpaw
power and which enabled the gumsa to become feudal satellites of the Shan rather than their serfs'.
Nungic Sal Jinghpaw-Luish: Jinghpaw (Gauri, Nhkum, Hkahku, etc.), Singpho Northern Naga: Nocte-Tangsa: Nocte, Tangsa, Tutsa Chang-Konyak: Phom, Chang, Konyak, etc.
An instructive example is Singpho and Jinghpaw. The elaborate and opaque indexation system of Jinghpaw (DeLancey 2011) is found only in some dialects of the language; it is absent, for example, in the Singpho dialects of Assam (Morey 2010).
These mini-essays range across topics such as India's village panchayat system, the concept of the "lost book" (Shanhpyi Laika), and the Jinghpaw term Hkaku--an ambiguous notion referring to groups "upriver".
There is, for example, Skaw Karen, Asho Chin, Shan and Jinghpaw programming.
Drawing on data from four languages that belong to different Jamilies (Cree, Navajo, Jinghpaw, and Japanese), I discuss that the empathy-based approach ( i) provides a uniform analysis of DIO-systems in different languages, as well as the yaru/kureru opposition in Japanese, which have been believed to be controlled by different sets of syntactic/ semantic factors, and (ii) dispenses with construction-specific rules/ constraints such as the person constraint, the possessive constraint, and the ban on multiple proximates within a clause.
In certain languages (e.g., Algonquian: Cree [Dahlstrom 1986; Wolfart 1973], Blackfoot [Pustet 1995], Ojibwa [Rhodes 1990; Jelinek 1990], Athabaskan: Navajo [Young and Morgan 1980; Hale 1973], TibetoBurman: Jinghpaw [DeLancey 1981b], Nootkan [Whistler 1985]; Otomanguean: Sochiapan Chinantec [Foris 1993]; see Klaiman 1991 and Givon 1994 for more references) (a subset of) transitive/ditransitive verbs have two forms called DIRECT and INVERSE.
Languages like Jinghpaw
(Kachin) occupy an intermediate position, with contrastive tones on all roots, but many unstressed and tonally marginal prefixal syllables.
The local ethnonyms of Wunpawng or Jinghpaw
have been promoted as more appropriate terms.
student, friend and former colleague, a native Kachin (Jinghpaw
) anthropologist and linguist (not a mere 'native informant', but a serious anthropological and linguistic theorist in the modern sense).
(2.) The language spoken by the Kachins is known as Chingpaw or Jinghpaw
. During the 1920s the British also used the term "Chingpaw" to refer to a tribal subdivision of Kachin society, thus creating confusion in the meaning of the term.