No mesmo sentido, Ferguson (1990: 247) afirma que "[t]he taking and shrinking of enemies' heads is an ancient practice among Jivaroan
peoples, apparently a survival of what was once a widespread pre-Columbian practice among peoples of and around the northern Andes", e Jandial et al.
The Barbacoan family, spoken in coastal southern Colombia and northern Ecuador, and the Jivaroan
family, spoken in the Andean foothills of southern Ecuador and northern Peru, would be the most likely candidates [where we could identify a major dominant substrate language that may have influenced EQ].
In this way, we see the absence of what could form the basis of a fatherland in the Amerindian manner (see also Taylor 1993: 675 for the Jivaroan
case and lack of historicity and deaths).
Boster J, Berlin B, O'Neil J (1986) The correspondence of Jivaroan
to scientific ornithology.
THE Achuar (sometimes spelled Atschar) were among the last of the Jivaroan
groups of people to be affected by Western culture.
As I listened to Palin, I was standing two cases away from the museum's most popular attraction, the exhibit of tsantsa, shrunken enemy heads made by the Shuar and other Jivaroan
peoples of western Amazonia.
There are a few language families that have SwAt-marked temporal clauses for many or all of their members, like Quechuan, Aymaran, Tucanoan, Tupian, Panoan, Tacanan (Antoine Guillaume, p.c.), Barbacoan, Jivaroan
. There are furthermore a number of (near) isolate or unclassified languages that have SwAt dependency markers, like Cofan (Fischer 2007, Fischer & Van Lier 2011), Kwaza (van der Voort 2004), Yurakare (Van Gijn 2006), and Embera (Chocoan, Mortensen 1999) as well as a few languages with SwAt markers that belong to families that generally do not have this, like Tariana (Arawak, Aikhenvald 2003), Carib languages Panare (Payne 1991) and Tunebo (Headland & Levinsohn 1977), and some Macro-Je languages (Rodrigues 1999a).
In addition, the relevant substrate languages, such as Shuar (Jivaroan
), are suffixal in nature.