Their leader John Horse
ultimately brought many of the group to Mexico, in order to prevent their re-enslavement, where their descendants survive to this day.
Nobody did but somebody shoulda Told those Indians Holed up at Wowoka in Oklahoma About the half-breed Seminole John Horse
Who founded that town, Who fought with Osceola and Wildcat Who traveled to Washington Who for being Black was forced to flee to Mexico In search of an elusive justice he never received.
JOHN HORSE'S story feels like an answer to every Hollywood studio's wish list: a mix of Spartacus, Braveheart, Amistad, and Glory, with just a pinch of Dances With Wolves.
Bird, an administrator at the University of Texas--has written and produced an engrossing multimedia Web documentary, Rebellion: John Horse and the Black Seminoles, the First Black Rebels to Beat American Slavery.
During the war, another leader emerged: the former slave John Horse, half black and half Indian, who was destined to lead the Black Seminoles on a long, complex exodus in pursuit of freedom.
Bird argues that several factors combined to "bury" the tale of John Horse and his people.
was born in Florida with some Spanish blood, and was later known in Indian Territory and then in Mexico by various aliases, but was more commonly known by his Spanish name in Florida, Juan Caballo.
Although some are included in most school texts, many like the fur trading Bonga brothers, or the notorious Rufus Bunch Gang or John Horse
, a black Seminole leader are not.
Their odyssey is expounded in five parts focused on war and peace in Florida (1812-1842), the time spent in Indian Territory (1842-1850), the sanctuary years in Mexico (1850-1870), the activities of Seminole Negro Indian Scouts in Texas (1870-1914), and John Horse's last years in Mexico (1876-1882).
John Horse (also known as Gopher John, Juan Caballo, and John Cowaya), who had emerged as a black leader in Florida, and who had served as interpreter for Seminole Chief Micanopy, complained to officials in Washington about transgressions that Creeks, Seminoles, and Cherokees had committed against his people.