Gunnarsson and his colleagues have a good reason for keeping an eye on Katla, when it last went off, in 1918, huge volumes of water created by melting glaciers created a flash flood (known locally as a jokulhlaup
) that devastated the surrounding landscape.
The term "jokulhlaup
" (glacier leap) entered the glaciological literature, though it is somewhat surpassed today by the abbreviation "GLOF" (glacier lake outburst flood), which stemmed from similar, more recent catastrophic events in the Himalayas and elsewhere.
The analysis also turned up evidence of a river formed in a jokulhlaup
, a massive flood that occurs when water trapped in a glacier breaks free.
a flood of meltwater from beneath a glacier or icecap
In one cataclysmic glacial outburst flood--a jokulhlaup
, Icelanders call it--500 feet of sand were heaped up in places in just days, forcing the river to change course.
30, geoscientists there waited anxiously for the jokulhlaup
, a deluge of water pouring out from beneath the ice.
These include a detailed analysis of the glacier disaster on 20 September 2002 in northern Osetiya (Caucasus), discussions of surging glaciers in the Pamir and of mountain geomorphology in northern Pakistan, and a summary of the dangers of glacial lake outbreaks (jokulhlaup
) in Nepal and Bhutan.
The mine also has the misfortune of being situated below a jokulhlaup
, an ice jam that lets loose every year, wiping out everything in its path.
Also listed are 38 named snow patches and 14 named jokulhlaup
Other interesting scientific results appear in Appendices II-Jokulhalup (details of the jokulhlaup
from Skeioararjokull in 1954 as well as a listing of such occurrences from 1816 to 2004), III-The Glaciers of Oraefi (plane-table surveys of the snout of Morsarjokull in 1953 (Fig.
When it came the jokulhlaup
(glacier burst) was the most powerful flood for 60 years.
are relatively common in actively glaciated areas, often causing damage to roads and communications networks.