Josephinism


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Josephinism

the policies and measures concerning religion introduced by Emperor Joseph II of Austria (1741-90). Also Josephism.
See also: Religion
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They were divided into two groups: the Cisalpinists, who, like the supporters of French Gallicanism and Austrian Josephinism, promoted the idea of the independence of the national churches, and the Transalpinists, who defended papal infallibility and stressed clerical authority over the laity.
This view gained momentum during controversies of the Reformation and continued through the struggles against Gallicanism and Josephinism.
18th-century reformism, whether inspired by the Enlightenment, Gallicanism, Jansenism, or Josephinism, was also anti-Roman.