Josephinism


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Josephinism

the policies and measures concerning religion introduced by Emperor Joseph II of Austria (1741-90). Also Josephism.
See also: Religion
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They were divided into two groups: the Cisalpinists, who, like the supporters of French Gallicanism and Austrian Josephinism, promoted the idea of the independence of the national churches, and the Transalpinists, who defended papal infallibility and stressed clerical authority over the laity.
'Josephinism and the Josephinian Reforms Concerning Haydn.' Jens Peter Larsen, Howard Serwer, James Webster (eds).
This view gained momentum during controversies of the Reformation and continued through the struggles against Gallicanism and Josephinism. Vatican I capped this development, so much so that, as the 1983 Code and Vatican II witness, (96) the authority of the Roman pontiff continues to be defined principally in terms of his being "Vicar of Christ and Pastor of the universal Church on earth." (97) That this is so because he is bishop of Rome is often either overlooked or subsumed into considerations of his role as universal primate.