And voltage standards are based on Josephson junctions
, which are one of the technologies that are being used and explored for QIS applications.
There are three kinds of superconducting qubits--flux, charge, and phase qubits; all use Josephson junctions
. Superconducting loops that include a Josephson junction
allow current to flow clockwise and counterclockwise simultaneously, a superposition of states.
In this case, we may regard the Josephson junction
as a curvature-to-voltage converter with the following ratio (m is the free electron mass):
Rosen, "Existence, uniqueness, and nonuniqueness of single-wave-form solutions to Josephson junction
systems," SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, vol.
Idowu, "Synchronization of chaos in RCL-shunted Josephson junction
using a simple adaptive controller," Physica Scripta, vol.
He has worked on a broad range of topics within the field of superconducting electronics, including Josephson junction
array oscillators, single flux quantum logic, ac and dc Josephson voltage standards, Josephson waveform synthesis, and noise thermometry.
where [I.sub.c] is the critical current of a Josephson junction
in the 2D array, [k.sub.B] is the Boltzmann constant, T is the absolute temperature, and [[DELTA].sub.c] is the collective Coulomb barrier of the array.
"The principal advantage of using the Josephson junction
is that it can span the low and high frequency ranges covered by other, significantly more expensive devices," said Yuri Divin, of the Research Centre Juelich.
arrays represent the most stable and predictable standard voltage source.
When two or more domains are in close proximity, a superconductor-normal conductor-superconductor Josephson junction