During enamel secretion and maturation (Haruyama et al., 2010), these secreted amelogenins are degraded by proteinases such as matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP-20) and kallikrein 4 (KLK4
) into various smaller amelogenin peptides, including tyrosinerich amelogenin peptide (TRAP), and amelogenin as well as other organic matrices in the enamel, are almost totally removed during the mineralization of enamel before tooth eruption.
Meprin[beta] is activated by KLK4
and facilitates proliferation and terminal differentiation of SG KCs, thereby contributing to the proper SC formation .
It arises from mutations that occur in one or more than one of four genes that are known to play a role in enamel formation, namely, amelogenin (AMELX), enamelin, enamelysin (MMP20), and kallikrein (KLK4
(16) Several genes have been implicated in the development of amelogenesis imperfecta, including AMELX, ENAM, DLX3, FAM83H, MMP20, KLK4
, and WDR72.
Correlative studies have already provided evidence that five other protein members of KLK family (KLK4
, KLK5, KLK7, KLK8, and KLK10) were abundantly expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, showing diagnostic value .
Hunt et al., "Kallikrein-related peptidase 4 (KLK4
) initiates intracellular signaling via protease-activated receptors (PARs): KLK4
and PAR-2 are co-expressed during prostate cancer progression," Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
Among the topics are single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human kallikrein-related peptidase (KLK) locus and their implications in various diseases, molecular recognition properties of KLK on synthetic and endogenous substrates, KLK within the proteolytic web, the role of KLK4
in dental enamel formation, and physiological and pathophysiological roles of KLK in the central nervous system.
On the other hand, results obtained with exome chips (ftp://share.sph.umich.edu/exomeChip/Proposed Content/codingContent) have indicated the occurrence of stop codons in several KLK genes, including KLK4
, KLK9, KLK10, and KLK14.
A list of environmental indicators Environmental indicators Category Name Notation Natural Fossil energy use during transportation KEF1 resource use Fossil energy use during loading-unloading KEF2 Rate of using renewable resources KEF3 Energy Energy efficiency of transportation KE1 efficiency Technology Level of technology involved during vehicle KT1 construction Emissions Total C[O.sub.2] emissions KLK1 to air Total N[O.sub.x] emissions KLK2 Total PM emissions KLK3 Total S[O.sub.2] emissions KLK4
Emissions to Emissions to soil and water KFV1 soil and water Waste generation KFV2 Table 3.
Mutations in genes involved in enamel (AMELX, ENAM, MMP20, and KLK4
) identified, as possible causes of amelogenesis imperfecta, have not been tested.
Two proteases of the matrix, metalloproteinase 20 (MMP-20, or enamelysin) and kallikrein 4 (KLK4
, or enamel matrix serine proteinase 1, EMSP1), are known to play important roles in removing enamel proteins during amelogenesis.