While the Dagestan ASSR was essentially an enlarged version of the Dagestan region, which already existed before the 1917 revolution, the Soviet Mountain Republic encompassed the non-Russian peoples living south of the Terek River in the former Terek region--including, in addition to several Cossack communities, Chechens, Ingush, Ossetes, Balkars, Kabardians, and Karachai.
Not only were relations among the different ethnic groups often fraught with tension (conflict was especially fierce between the Ingush and the Ossetes, as well as the Balkars and the Kabardians), but once the Red Army had invaded Georgia in February 1921, defeating the bulk of Gotsinskii's armed forces a few months later, an important rationale for the creation of this republic ceased to exist, as Stalin himself acknowledged.
Karl Lander, who then represented the secret police in the North Caucasus, reported in February 1922 that among the mountain peoples, "like the Chechens, the Kabardians, and a part of the Karachai people," who "hitherto [had been] well-disposed" toward them unrest was growing, and that the Chechens had started to carry out ambushes against the oil installations close to Groznyi, "which [had] not [been] the case until now." (50) This was all the more disconcerting to the author of the report because he linked the domestic with an international situation that was still perceived as threatening.
Unlike Kalmykov, who pled for Kabardian territorial autonomy, El'darkhanov did not approach the central Soviet government with demands for a separate Chechen autonomous region.
Sochi was historically the capital of an area populated by the Circassians (encompassing the Adyghes, Kabardians
, Shapsugs, and Cherkess), peoples of the North Caucasus who speak dialects of the Circassian language.
hobby school had 2 students in 2008 and 27 in 2011 (in 2000, 14 Kabardians
lived in Estonia), and the Narva Uzbek Sunday School had 7 and 26 students, respectively.
(21) The system of dominating ethnic groups is also found on the secondary level of the republics, which Wimmer has termed as "dominant minorities." (22) In Kabardino-Balkaria, Balkars regularly complain about the domination of the Kabardians, as do the Cherkess about the Karachai in Karachai-Cherkessia.
The official Soviet bureaucracy defined them as Adyghean, Cherkess, Kabardian and Shapsough depending on their place of residence and the dialect of the Circassian language spoken.
In an offhand way, he has been known to say about the two chief ethnic groups of his region, "The Balkars and the Kabardians, they're pretty much the same." A Kabardian himself, Akhmed is simply not used to thinking of the world as divided into irreconcilable ethnic units.
The Kabardians trace their history to great Circassian principalities, and the Balkars to Turkic tribes.
Within these compounds Kabardians first understand the moral and social code they call khabza, which dictates how to behave rightly and with guakach', or "heart talent," and young Muslims learn to wash themselves, cover their heads, and turn to Mecca for their daily prayers.
The first essay by LaszloMaracz deals with the expedition to the North Caucasus of Hungarian linguist Count Balint de Szentkatolna (1844-1913) who studied and developed a dictionary for Kabardian
and believed that the language was "Turanian" and part of a hypothesized family including Uralic, Altaic and Dravidian languages, a controversial idea.