McShane's paper distinguishes between broadly Kantian
and consequentialist approaches to value, taking Kantians
to view value as 'value-to-be-respected', and consequentialists to view value as 'value-to-be-promoted' (p.
First, the book provides an extensive critique of classical moral philosophy and the only solution they come up with is a combination of different elements of classical moral theories of Kantians
, Neo-Kantians and Rawlsians.
It accepts the "distinction between Nature and Freedom, and locates the dignity of the person in the ability to create a human world outside of biological and physical nature through assertions of will." (3) For Kantians
, persons possess inalienable rights protecting them from harm.
My target will be a recently influential interpretation of Kant, due primarily to John Rawls and a number of his students, most prominently Onora O'Neill, Christine Korsgaard, and Barbara Herman, a group I will for convenience refer to as the New Kantians
. (1) Although it does draw on earlier interpretative work, this body of writing is relatively self-contained, and manageable in a way that the Kant literature as a whole no longer is.
The battle between the Kantians
and the utilitarians is fundamentally a battle between believers in universality and believers in particularity, between people who think the moral law is general and universal and people who think that local circumstances are the things to look at when it's time to make moral choices.
argue that such an ethic is superior to utilitarianism not only because it takes rights seriously, but because it is an ethic that, unlike utilitarianism, can be morally justified.
The framers were not Kantians
; to understand them as they understood themselves as constitution makers, to apprehend the reason and justice of the constitutional order they founded, it seems necessary to adopt a more realistic and pluralistic philosophy of history than that which Richards employs.
Empiricists see the problem of aesthetics as relating appearances to realities, which Kantians
realize is misguided.
Rather than limiting himself to ethics and politics, he makes metaphysical claims about how Kantians
understand the person.
Given the centrality of maxims to Kantian
ethics and action theory, it is surprising how little attention Kantians
have paid over the years to the perplexing question what exactly a maxim is.
Recently, however, a number of so-called "affirmative Kantians
" have argued that Kant's philosophy of religion explicitly aims at recovering the spirit of Christianity.