Chapter 8 depicts the involvement of Esref in the Nationalist Movement which was headed by Mustafa Kemal Pasha
. After he had a position of regional command near Adapazari, he drifted away from the Ankara Government and joined in the Greek side.
"The Ottoman Army, led by Mustafa Kemal Pasha
, had reached Aleppo, which maintained its loyalty to the Ottomans.
Directed by Anwar Kemal Pasha
and produced by Hakeem Ahmad Shujaa, 'Gumnaam' features timeless music composed by Inayat Hussain Bhatti.
Wajahat Attrey's melodies of Noorjehan come with several hit songs including 'Jhangeria pehnaado', 'Toon ai mahi' and 'Tu joo.' Bahar Begum She began her career with Anwar Kemal Pasha
's Punjabi musical romance 'Chan Mahi' and went on to make several successful films.
After an introduction to the country's geography, political institutions, economic structure, and cultural characteristics, chapters cover the ancient history of Anatolia and Eastern Thrace, from the Paleolithic age to the Seljuk Turkish victory over Byzantine armies at Manzikert; the Turkish conquest of Anatolia and the imperial rule of the Ottoman sultans; the Young Turk revolution, War of Independence, and early years of the republic; Turkish multi-party democracy up to the military coup of September 12, 1980; the effects of military rule; the Justice and Development Party years; and the Gezi Park protests and Turkish life since then, emphasizing the legacy of Mustafa Kemal Pasha
AtatErk, the first president.
has issued the directive while allowing a writ petition filed by Smitha's father, George.
Mustafa Kemal Pasha
who emerged as a savior of Turkey after World War I, was a part this movement.
When Mustafa Kemal Pasha
founded the Republic, he inherited the Unionists' "experienced" bureaucratic class and granted them control over all strategic government institutions and agencies, including the Armed Forces and the Intelligence Agency to this group of bureaucrats.