His study concludes that the majority of the enslaved came from twenty-one linguistic groups and 116 ethnicities, with almost three-quarters identified as Kikongo
, Kimbundu and Umbundu.
While her grandparents taught her "some of the African languages," what Bilby and Bunseki have largely attributed to the Kikongo
language, (29) she got the "African setup" through her time "at the cotton-tree root." This moment in her life was her opening to the world of ol' arrivants, one that was grounded along the roots and within the hollow trunk of a fallen silk cotton tree.
"A big storm hit," said local government official Richard Kikongo
. "It can be fine on land but bad weather on the lake."
Yet, components of 'Kikongo
' are still spoken in rural south-eastern Jamaica.
Franco was also capable of songs of heart-rending pain, which he often sang in his mother tongue of Kikongo
rather than Lingala --such as Kinsiona, his lament for the younger brother he lost in a car accident, or Luvumbu Ndoki, a rhythmically captivating threnody for the victims of Mobutu's public executions in 1966.
He also mastered three languages: French, Lingala, and Kikongo
This information has not been confirmed by historians, but there is no doubt San Basilio de Palenque was clearly a Maroon enclave that survives to this day with its own creole language (having a strong Kikongo
base), and African-derived traditions such as Lumbabu, a ritual for the deceased.
Isso acontece sobretudo no Candomble Angola, onde as pessoas estao se especializando no Kikongo
, Kibundo e Umbundo, como "linguas oficiais" do Candomble Angola.
The book ends with two chapters in which Smith summarizes current knowledge about the contributions of Kikongo
and Gbe vocabulary to the Suriname creoles, including an annotated word list based on the published linguistic literature without, however, taking into account the wealth of data available in Richard Price's Travels with Tooy: History, Memory and the African American Imagination (2007).
El cambio contrario /f/ > /[??]/, presente tambien en los dialogos de Las estrellas en ejemplos como ciado (109) o judo (136), tiene con mucha mayor claridad una genesis africana, concretamente de tipo kikongo
, segun demuestra Lipski en su articulo "El cambio /r/ > /d/ en el habla afrohispanica: un rasgo fonetico 'congo'?".