[--] In the Kastli village of Aksi there is a distant and lonely field called Siberimaa 'the land of Siberia' " Saar (2000 : 169-170) suggests two explanations for the emergence of names motivated by comparison with geographically distant places: firstly, people's broadening horizons, and secondly, the stimulating effect of the Soviet era with its collective and state farms (kolkhozes
and sovkhozes), transformation of nature and propagandist commemorative names.
(4) Respondents were men and women born between 1900 and 1925, who joined newly formed kolkhozes
in the early 1930s or were children when their parents joined.
Some were confiscated by local authorities, usually the heads of kolkhozes
(a cooperative structure of small individual farms in the Soviet Union) and sovkhozes (farms organized by the state on land confiscated from former large estates), quite often for personal use and under false pretenses, with related paperwork falsified to show that the cattle had died due to natural causes (APRK 1947b).
During the World War II, many of the inhabitants of Dragoslavele had fought on the Russian battlefront and have seen the kolkhozes
. Consequently, they were reluctant to accept the collectivization and thus ran in the mountains, taking part in what is known as the Resistance (Miroiu: 2010).
After the death of the "father of all times and peoples" in 1953 and the rejection by the state of the most odious forms of exploitation and forced labor (in the system of Gulag and kolkhozes
), the politarian system of the USSR gradually deteriorated, not able to provide a labor capacity and quality of basic forms of production higher than in Western countries (with the exception of the production of military and space branches, for which the state did not spare any means).
They worked three-four years, some even longer, among Soviet citizens in the mines, in construction, kolkhozes
, chopping woods...
What is more, during individual periods of "socialist construction" (especially in the 1930s) it is even possible to speak of super exploitation of workers, since the barbaric use of the work force on "national construction sites," in the kolkhozes
, and especially in the GULAG system resulted in its irreplaceable loss.
Since the "kulaks" owned the land and machinery that were to form the basis of the new kolkhozes
or collective farms, they obviously had to be dispossessed of their property and removed as political obstacles.
That Americans have not yet been herded into full-blown Soviet-style kolkhozes
is hardly the issue; American farms are already largely collectivized in the name of environmental and occupational safety, government control of farm prices and food supplies, and countless other rationales.
For example, according to Lenin's call, "Communism--Soviet authority together with the electrification of the whole country", an all-union goal was set to build large power plants, hydro- and thermoelectric plants based on local fuels, in order to provide electricity for districts and kolkhozes
. In 1953, the guidelines "Program for the Electrotechnical Group in the Community House" (63) were published, providing 50 theoretical and 26 practical lessons for Estonian community houses.
The Kyrgyz state could not even pay the subsidies for kolkhozes
(collective farms), sovkhozes (state farms) and factories.