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I·ran(ĭ-răn′, ĭ-rän′, ī-răn′) Formerly Per·sia (pûr′zhə, -shə)
A country of southwest Asia. Inhabited since c. 2000 bc by Iranian peoples, the region later became the core of the Persian Empire. After being conquered by Alexander the Great and ruled by the Parthian Arsacid dynasty, Persia was reestablished under the Sassanian dynasty (ad 224-651) and, after invasions by Arabs (7th century), Turks (10th century), and Mongols (13th century), was reestablished again under the Safavid dynasty (1502-1736). The country, renamed Iran in 1935, was ruled by the Pahlavi dynasty from 1925 until the ouster of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (1979) in a revolution led by the Ayatollah Khomeini, who established an Islamic republic. Tehran is the capital and the largest city.
Usage Note: As foreign locales become more familiar to English speakers, the pronunciation of their names often evolves away from a literal rendering of their English spelling and toward their native pronunciation, though with considerable variation across names and speakers. Prague once rhymed with plague but now is closer to bog, while Chile may be pronounced either as "chilly" or "chee-lay," and Brazil is still Anglicized (brə-zĭl′) rather than Portuguese (brä-sēl′). In American English today, we find three common pronunciations for Iran: (ĭ-rän′, ĭ-răn′, and ī-răn′), with analogous variants for Iraq. In our 2014 Usage Ballot, most Panelists personally preferred (ĭ-rän′), but a large majority considered both (ĭ-rän′) and (ĭ-răn′) acceptable. The same was true for Iraq. Panelists were much less tolerant of the pronunciation of the initial syllable as "eye" (some commented that this pronunciation seemed "unsophisticated" or "parochial"): 71% deemed (ī-răn′) unacceptable, with only 6% reporting it as their preferred pronunciation, with similar percentages for Iraq.
(Placename) a republic in SW Asia, between the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf: a monarchy until an Islamic revolution in 1979 headed by the Ayatollah Khomeini when the Shah was obliged to leave the country. Consists chiefly of a high central desert plateau almost completely surrounded by mountains, a semitropical fertile region along the Caspian coast, and a hot and dry area beside the Persian Gulf. Oil is the most important export. Official language: Persian (Iranian or Farsi). Official religion: Muslim majority. Currency: rial. Capital: Tehran. Pop: 79 853 900 (2013 est). Area: 1 647 050 sq km (635 932 sq miles). Former name (until 1935): Persia Official name: Islamic Republic of Iran See also Persian Empire
I•ran(ɪˈræn, ɪˈrɑn, aɪˈræn)
1. Formerly (until 1935), Persia. a republic in SW Asia: an Islamic republic since 1979. 65,179,752; ab. 635,000 sq. mi. (1,644,650 sq. km).Cap.: Teheran.
2. Plateau of, a plateau in SW Asia, mostly in Iran and Afghanistan, extending from the Tigris to the Indus rivers.
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|Noun||1.||Iran - a theocratic Islamic republic in the Middle East in western Asia; Iran was the core of the ancient empire that was known as Persia until 1935; rich in oil|
MEK, MKO, Mujahidin-e Khalq Organization, People's Mujahidin of Iran - a terrorist organization formed in the 1960s by children of Iranian merchants; sought to counter the Shah of Iran's pro-western policies of modernization and opposition to communism; following a philosophy that mixes Marxism and Islam it now attacks the Islamic fundamentalists who deposed the Shah
OPEC, Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries - an organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum
Usuli - a religious movement by Persian Shiite Muslims in 17th century Iran that is opposed to the Akhbari; "Usuli Shiism produced the politically active caste of priests that is a distinctive feature of Iranian Shiism"
Middle East, Mideast, Near East - the area around the eastern Mediterranean; from Turkey to northern Africa and eastward to Iran; the site of such ancient civilizations as Phoenicia and Babylon and Egypt and the birthplace of Judaism and Christianity and Islam; had continuous economic and political turmoil in the 20th century; "the Middle East is the cradle of Western civilization"
Gulf States - the countries in southwestern Asia that border the Persian Gulf
capital of Iran, Iranian capital, Teheran, Tehran - the capital and largest city of Iran; located in northern Iran
Abadan - a port city in southwestern Iran
Bam - an ancient city in southeastern Iran; destroyed by an earthquake in 2003
Shiraz - a city in central southwestern Iran; ruins of ancient Persepolis are nearby
Tabriz - an ancient city in northwestern Iran; known for hot springs
Qum - a city in northwestern Iran; a place of pilgrimage for Shiite Muslims
Persepolis - an ancient city that was the capital of the ancient Persian Empire; now in ruins
Kurdistan - an extensive geographical region in the Middle East to the south of the Caucasus
Demavend - an active volcano in northern Iran
Asia - the largest continent with 60% of the earth's population; it is joined to Europe on the west to form Eurasia; it is the site of some of the world's earliest civilizations
Caspian, Caspian Sea - a large saltwater lake between Iran and Russia fed by the Volga River; the largest inland body of water in the world
Daryacheh-ye Orumiyeh, Lake Urmia, Urmia - a shallow saline lake in northwestern Iran between Tabriz and the western border of Turkey
Irani, Iranian, Persian - a native or inhabitant of Iran; "the majority of Irani are Persian Shiite Muslims"
ayatollah - a high-ranking Shiite religious leader who is regarded as an authority on religious law and its interpretation and who has political power as well
Iran[ɪˈrɑːn] N → Irán m
n → (der) Iran