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See Sparta.

Lac′e·dae·mo′ni·an (-də-mō′nē-ən) adj. & n.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.


adj, n
1. (Placename) another word for Spartan
2. (Peoples) another word for Spartan
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014
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The Lacedaemonians next governed it twenty-nine years; at a subsequent period, after the battle of Leuctra, the Thebans had their turn of domination.
After the conclusion of the war with Xerxes, it appears that the Lacedaemonians required that a number of the cities should be turned out of the confederacy for the unfaithful part they had acted.
But this would be most evident, if any one could see such a government really established: for it would be impossible to frame such a city without dividing and separating it into its distinct parts, as public tables, wards, and tribes; so that here the laws will do nothing more than forbid the military to engage in agriculture, which is what the Lacedaemonians are at present endeavouring to do.
As for the wars which were anciently made, on the behalf of a kind of party, or tacit conformity of estate, I do not see how they may be well justified: as when the Romans made a war, for the liberty of Grecia; or when the Lacedaemonians and Athenians, made wars to set up or pull down democracies and oligarchies; or when wars were made by foreigners, under the pretence of justice or protection, to deliver the subjects of others, from tyranny and oppression; and the like.
The critics imagine he was a Lacedaemonian. They think it strange, therefore, that Telemachus should not have met him when he went to Lacedaemon.
He stressed the power of fear in international relations when he wrote that it was the "growth of Athenian power, which terrified the Lacedaemonians and forced them into war." The Athenian general turned historian identified the underlying cause of the war as mutual fear triggered by the rapid change in the balance of power between the two rival Greek city-states.
(Spartan women were notoriously free with their favors.) Plutarch reports that Alcibiades "would say, in his vain way, he had not done this thing out of mere wantonness or insult, nor to gratify a passion, but that his race might one day be kings over the Lacedaemonians." Later, when the Spartans, led by the properly resentful Agis, grew suspicious of Alcibiades, he went over to the Persian satrap Tissaphernes, whom he charmed out of his silken trousers.
Faderman quotes from a GAA leaflet that explains the meaning of the lambda for gay rights activists: "The Lacedaemonians, or Spartans, bore it on their shields, a people's will aimed at common oppressors." She summarizes the goals of GAA: "Enemies of gays and lesbians, like Sparta's enemies, would cease to sleep peacefully in their beds at night.
Despite their scant numbers, Demaratus warns Xerxes, the Greeks will prove a formidable foe, especially the Lacedaemonians:
According to Aristotle, among the Greeks, the Lacedaemonians only conferred authority on their kings when it came to the direction of warfare and the care and administration of sacred things.
The Lacedaemonians have fallen so far behind our common culture and learning that they do not even try to instruct themselves in letters.
And they are so delighted to see your disasters that they get news of them in advance of anyone else, or fabricate the rumor themselves; now it is the loss of your ships in the Black Sea, now the capture of vessels on their outward voyage by the Lacedaemonians, now the blockade of your trading ports, or the impending rupture of the truce; and they have carried their enmity to such lengths that they choose the same critical moments as your foes to overreach you.