From him, as from Laforgue
, I learned that the sort of material I had, the sort of experience that an adolescent had had, in an industrial city in America, could be the material for poetry; and that the source of new poetry might be found in what had been regarded hitherto as the impossible, the sterile, the intractably unpoetic." "Les Fleurs du Mal" ecrira Yves Bonnefoy en 1951 "sont le maitre-livre de notre poesie." Et si elles le sont, il convient de voir que c'est souvent d'une maniere qui varie, voire qui contredit la poetique explicite des ecrits critiques.
Chinitz makes a new and important contribution to our understanding of Eliot's early poetry by adding to the standard account of how Jules Laforgue
's poetry gave Eliot a pose and a tone with which to work.
Winters faults poets like Laforgue
and Eliot for expressing "a state of moral insecurity which the poet sees no way to improve"; but often, perhaps most of the time, we do not see a way to improve our weaknesses, and to say otherwise would be artistically dishonest.
One might also cite Laforgue
's conquest in the cafe (C, pp.
In 'The Subject-Matter of Poetry' (1920), Huxley had simply stated that only Laforgue
had 'succeeded in making real poetry out of science .
The principal Symbolist poets included Stephane Mallarme, Paul Verlaine, Arthur Rimbaud, Jules Laforgue
, Henri de Regnier, Gustave Kahn, Emile Verhaeren, Georges Rodenbach, Jean Moreas, and Francis Viele-Griffin.
A great deal of his early criticism and poetry grew out of this project, including dramatic lyrics modeled on the Chinese in Cathay (1915), epigrammatic poetry based on Martial in Lustra (1916), verse drama based on the Japanese in Certain Noble Plays of Japan (1916), the long witty lines of "Homage to Sextus Propertius" (1919), and experiments with the French of Laforgue
, Corbiere, and Gautier.
(1) A minority of critics do not argue either polarized reading, but rather emphasize Bug-Jargal's ambiguous elements or its transitional place in Hugo's evolution as an artist and social thinker; see for instance Pascale Gaitet, Pierre Laforgue
, Bernard Mouralis and Lawrence M.