Given the historical dominance of accounts that explain French natural science in the period 1800-1830 by appealing to the personal characters of Cuvier and Lamarck; and given the preponderance of current histories that continue to divide the field into Lamarckian
"transformists" and Cuverian "fixists," equating the former with a radical new paradigm that foreshadows Darwin and the latter with a superannuated doctrine that was superficially kept alive past its useful life span by untoward political influence; given all this, it is hardly surprising to find that the same dichotomy has tended to become the stock-in-trade of literary commentators and generalist historians, who rely for their scientific material on the accounts of the experts.
The event's evolution takes place via a sort of Lamarckian
Spencer's application of Darwin's natural selection to societies was inappropriate because, in order to see examples of evolution in human history, Spencer had to adopt the Lamarckian
view that acquired characteristics (thrift, energetic activity, aggressiveness) can be inherited.
Peirce further states that Lamarckian
evolution is "evolution by the force of habit" (CP 6.
Yet, to say that "Du Bois was unambiguously in step with the conceptual orthodoxy defined by the Lamarckian
social science of his day" (p.
Huxley; he refers on and off to the "transmitted nerve element" and other Lamarckian
museum pieces; but he early on makes it clear that in invoking the idea of natural selection he is merely "searching out and following up an analogy.
Evolutionary theory, coupled with a renewed interest in Lamarckian
ideas concerning the heritability of acquired characteristics, became popular in American social theory as a way to explain social differences between the races and the sexes as essentially hereditary differences.
25) While recognizing the challenge that DeVries' mutation theories posed to natural selection arguments, Kellogg eventually embraced an essentially Lamarckian
perspective in which the transmission of acquired characteristics was primarily responsible for new species formation:
If this is true, a Lamarckian
process may have governed the evolution of the self-reproducing branch for many eons.
The first model suffered a serious setback when the Lamarckian
hypothesis of the heredity of acquired characteristics was rejected by biology; this led to the founding of neo-social Darwinism in the form of a Darwinism freed from Lamarckism.
nature species had a right to evolve and to improvement, a right to unfold their potential (the attainment of human status).
6] Quite apart from its moral defects, this scheme is every bit as lunatic, every bit as incompatible with accepted science, as is the Lamarckian
theory of evolution that supplied its base.