The aging members of his fellow Landsturm
unit smiled back as best they could through gritted teeth as they fought to overcome their fear.
A diary entry reveals his patriotism: "Gebhard turns 17 today and joins the "Landsturm
The Hague Convention retained the provisions on the lawfulness of the defensive rising en masse in nonoccupied territory, although it did not mention other military organizations included in the Oxford Manual, such as national guards, landsturm
, and free corps.
Note: according to the Austrian author and historian Reinolf Reisinger, late in the war, a quantity of the Repetier-Gewehr M.85 Osterreichische Vorlage--the trials predecessor of the M.86 Mannlicher--was issued to the Landsturm
Because Austria-Hungary did not have a reserve army--it was the only major power that had not learned that lesson of modern warfare--two-thirds of its troops in August 1914 were Landsturm
reserves (which the author compares to the U.S.
Meanwhile, the Etrappe (support units) had greater access to supplies, but lacked discipline, while the Landwehr (second-line units) and the Landsturm
(third-line units of old men and untrained conscripts) were the most prone to desertion and revolutionary activity.
Such formations usually included a few tanks and self-propelled guns, anti-tank teams, machine-gun teams, and infantry of varied quality--everything from elite SS (the Nazi party's Stutzstaffel, or "protective squadron") regiments shrunken to company size, to regular army soldiers, to the teenagers and older men of the landsturm
, Germany's last-echelon reserves.
Over the coming period several prisoner of war labor battalions (each made up of 4 companies of 500 men with 1 Landsturm
Company as guards) will be established on a trial basis.
Movement toward such a populist revolution took different forms: the formation of conspiratorial cells (an underground, revolutionary movement in which Schleiermacher took part) and the establishment of a national guard (Landswehr, created in February 1813) and provincial militias (Landsturm
, created in April 1813) consisting of and led by ordinary citizens, Burgher and peasant alike.
In the expedient of the local-defense Landsturm
they even--briefly--armed the people.
The backbone of the work is based on a compilation of thousands of original pre-war and wartime photos of every conceivable subject, ranging from the small-arms issued to the frontline troops and elderly members of the Landsturm
, to the gas masks produced for dogs and horses!