In a study of the non-diabetic population, it was shown that an increased first trimester NT was linked to large-for-gestational-age
(LGA) neonates (19).
Moreover, although the body mass index was similar in women with or without AD, the risk of gestational diabetes in women with the disease was significantly reduced by 21%; their risk of having a large-for-gestational-age
baby with a birth weight of 4,500 g or more was also significantly lower than in controls.
"Bariatric surgery, with patients matched for presurgery body mass index, resulted in a reduction in gestational diabetes mellitus, large-for-gestational-age
infants, large babies (composite of large for gestational age and macrosomia), gestational hypertension, all hypertensive disorders, postpartum hemorrhage, and cesarean delivery rates," wrote Wilson Kwong, MD, of the University of Toronto, and his colleagues.
The researchers found that the study group had lower rates of gestational diabetes mellitus (3.4 versus 17.6 percent), large-for-gestational-age
neonates (1.7 versus 19.3 percent), and birth weight >4,000 g (0.8 versus 7.6 percent) than the control group.
Xing, "Autism risk in small- and large-for-gestational-age
infants," American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol.
A retrospective cohort study from Kaiser Permanente Southern California, for instance, chose two strata of women whose GDM was in the lower levels of the IADPSG-defined spectrum for glucose intolerance and found that, in those with the lesser degree of hyperglycemia, only birth weight and large-for-gestational-age
was significantly greater than in women with no GDM (Obstet Gynecol.
Data of 292,568 cases from 1993 to 2005 in China reveal that maternal overweight and a high GWG or a GWG above the IOM recommendation is associated with adverse outcomes, such as hypertensive disorders complicating the pregnancy, cesarean delivery, macrosomia, and large-for-gestational-age
infants. We also found that maternal obesity was closely related to the CSR; the excessive weight gain group had a much higher CSR than did the adequate weight gain group and the inadequate weight gain group.
These morbidities include preeclampsia, preterm delivery, cesarean section delivery, and large-for-gestational-age
(LGA) infant [1, 2].
Perinatal outcome in large-for-gestational-age
Maternal obesity is also linked to greater risk of pre-term birth, large-for-gestational-age
babies, fetal defects, congenital anomalies, and perinatal death.
and growth-restricted fetuses are associated with diabetic pregnancy.
(22), showed that nutrition treatment started in the first trimester significantly reduced GDM risk and large-for-gestational-age
newborns by increasing the intake of dietary fibre and polyunsaturated fatty acids and decreasing the intake of saturated fatty acids.