It argues that the Ambon jihad was undermined by the lengthy debate within JI, as well as by the shifting dynamics between JI, Mujahidin KOMPAK and Laskar Jihad
. It further argues that the Poso jihad was more organized because JI's leadership had a more comprehensive approach to the Poso jihad, because JI and Mujahidin KOMPAK had learnt from the mistakes of the Ambon jihad in the areas of leadership, training, and using local jihads to achieve national aims, and because the intra- and inter-mujahidin dynamics, and with it the "state of jihad", had evolved significantly between February 1999 and September 2000.
JAT and JI also worked closely with other locally based radical groups such as Laskar Jihad
and Front Pembebasan Islam (FPI).
In another instance, Duncan objects to my contention (based on numerous interviews with leaders and members of the local Muslim militia, Pasukan Jihad) that the Java-based Laskar Jihad
did not enter North Maluku.
From The Laskar Jihad
in Indonesia to Islamic Salvation Front in Algeria, Libyan Islamic Fighting Group in Libya to International Islamic Brigade in Chechnya several radical groups were formed by these Afghanistan veterans.
Sketching the history of constitutional challenges to Pancasila since its introduction in 1945, Raillon highlights new threats to the doctrine as a direct result of the efforts of Islamic fundamentalist groups such as Laskar Jihad
and Front Pembela Islam and the pan-Islamic Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia, which has been particularly effective in penetrating student circles, as well as the electoral success of the Justice and Prosperity Party (PKS), which calls for a central role for Islam in public life.
Similarly in Indonesia itself, Jafar Umar Thalib's Laskar Jihad
(Army of Jihad), a Javanese group devoted to the Islamist struggle against Christians in Sulawesi, also rejected JI's advances.
Jafar Umar Thalib, a Yemeni, headed another Indonesian terrorist organization, Laskar Jihad
, established in the Malukus in early 2000.
Another prominent militia from Java, called Laskar Jihad
, advocated revising the constitution to establish Indonesia as an Islamic state.
Hamza associated himself with some of the more extreme Islamic organizations in Indonesia, the most notorious example of which was his visit in May 2002 to an imprisoned leader of Laskar Jihad
, a group which had gained prominence for its violent campaigns against Christians in eastern parts of the country.
The demonstration transpired peacefully, but armed fundamentalist Laskar Jihad
militia were positioned in mosques in Manokwari during the demonstration.
Since the conflict started, there has been an ongoing rumour that 10,000 Laskar Jihad
fighters were on their way to the province.
This positive development follows the sustained successes of the Malino Accords signed in Maluku and Sulawesi, and the reported dissolution of the Muslim extremist group, Laskar Jihad
, in October 2002.