He also served as counselor to another great reformer, Pope Leo IX
In particular, they challenge the widely held idea that popes from Leo IX
to Paschal II, with Gregory VII as a central figure, followed a long-term strategy of centralized, papal reform and that canon law played an important role in this strategy.
Peter Damiani, urged Pope Leo IX
to take strong action against concubinage and homosexuality among the clergy.
Fay's discussion of Rome-Constantinople relations is also flawed: Pope Leo IX
did not excommunicate Patriarch Cerularius; this was done by his legate Cardinal Humberto (Leo had died at this point).
The focal point of the Eastern Orthodox Church for nearly one thousand years, the building witnessed the excommunication of Patriarch Michael I Cerularius on the part of Pope Leo IX
in 1054, an act which is commonly considered the start of the Great Schism.
and is now made up of 25 priests, many having served in the Holy See's diplomatic service, ecclesiastical schools, or in the offices of the Vatican curia.
FEAST DAY OF POPE ST LEO IX
1775: In Lexington, the "shot heard around the world" was fired - by whom nobody is quite sure - that sparked a battle between British forces and local militiamen, seen as the start of the American War of Independence.
One of the most striking missives is the 1049 letter to Pope Leo IX
's 1049 decision to enforce a celibate clergy in order to break the impasse created by the feudal system is a good example.
Initially, it was so destructive to both the old monastic establishments and papal lands that Pope Leo IX
found the remedy in a military expedition against Normans in 1053 that resulted in the defeat of the papal forces.
On July 16, 1054, Pope Leo IX
excommunicated Cerularius, the Patriarch of Constantinople, who, in his turn, excommunicated the Pope.
In 1054 the pope was Leo IX
, born Bruno of Egisheim, formerly bishop of Toul, who had held the papal office for the previous five years.