Four new mammal subspecies were described from the material collected by the CAE: Lepus arcticus
andersoni (Nelson, 1934), Phoca (Pusa) hispida beaufortiana (Anderson, 1942), Canis lupus bernardi, and C.
Five species of terrestrial mammals were recorded on Prince Leopold Island: wolf (Cams lupus), Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), Arctic hare (Lepus arcticus
), collared lemming (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus), and caribou (Rangifer tarandus) (Table 2).
Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are the primary prey of wolves in many northern and Arctic areas (Kuyt, 1972; Stephenson and James, 1982) although arctic hares (Lepus arcticus
) and muskoxen (Ovibos mos-chatus) can also be important foods in areas where caribou are scarce (Mech, 2005, 2007).
Key words: arctic hare, Lepus arcticus
, wolf, Canis lupus arctos, Ellesmere Island, muskoxen, Ovibos moschatus, population dynamics, predator-prey relations, predation
Peterson and Ciucci (2003) also cited several published observations of wolves hunting various prey but concluded that the authors they cited "made little mention of the wolves' use of cooperative maneuvers." Nevertheless, older literature does seem to document ambushing (Kelsall, 1968; Rutter and Pimlott, 1968; Clark, 1971; Haber, 1977), and Mech (1995) cited several observations of yearling wolves chasing arctic hares (Lepus arcticus
) toward waiting adults.
Similarly, glaciation-induced genetic discontinuities along the Mackenzie River correspond to boundaries between Canadian Low Arctic and Beringian clades of the collared lemming (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus), as well as between different species of arctic hares (Lepus othus and Lepus arcticus
) (Waltari et al., 2004).
A long-existing system of wolves (Canis lupus), muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), and arctic hares (Lepus arcticus
) in a 2600 [km.sup.2] area of Canada's High Arctic (80[degrees] N latitude) began collapsing in 1997 because of unusual adverse summer weather but recovered to a level at which all three species were reproducing by 2004.
Morphology, reproduction, diet, and behavior of the arctic hare (Lepus arcticus
monstrabilis) on Axel Heiberg Island, Northwest Territories.