Letters of marque and reprisal


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Related to Letters of marque and reprisal: writ of habeas corpus, Duty of Tonnage, Obligation of contracts
See under Marque.

See also: Reprisal

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, published 1913 by G. & C. Merriam Co.
References in classic literature ?
To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;
No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.
To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water."
But see DeWitte, supra note 26, at 132 ("The United States, however, is not a signatory to this treaty, and Congress could revive letters of marque and reprisal at any time.").
To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offenses against the law of nations; To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water.
Time has partially obscured, for example, the meaning of textual provisions such as "Letters of Marque and Reprisal" and "Captures on Land and Water." (48) Beyond simply making originalist analysis more difficult, fundamental changes in how war is waged may also make formalist interpretive methods less normatively attractive.
Constitution will remember the peculiar phrase used in Article 1, section 8, that gives Congress the power to "grant letters of marque and reprisal." A clue to the phrase's meaning and a sign of its importance may be surmised from the power granted immediately prior to it in the Constitution: Congress's power "to declare war."
In a frequently cited article published during the Vietnam War, Charles Lofgren argued that the Framers' grant to Congress of the power to issue letters of marque and reprisal created a residual category of all forms of undeclared war.
The Constitution grants Congress the exclusive power not only to declare war but "to define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offenses against the law of nations," and to "grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water."
On 10 February 1625, the Duke of Buckingham was empowered to issue letters of marque and reprisal, but this may have been simply a delegation of responsibility; a document dated 19 January implies that such letters had already been issued.(7)
Constitution of granting letters of marque and reprisal to private actors to pursue pirates.
* Issuance of letters of marque by Congress authorizing action against terrorists responsible for attacks on American interests, under the constitutionally enumerated congressional powers to "define and punish piracies" and to "grant letters of marque and reprisal."