Levee en masse


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Le`vee´ en` masse´

    (le`vã´ äN` mås´)
n.1.See Levy in mass, under Levy, n.
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, published 1913 by G. & C. Merriam Co.
References in periodicals archive ?
Wed to a limited-war tradition and a commitment to international norms, they abhorred a foe whom they understood to have radicalized warfare via a levee en masse with complete civilian participation.
Breen asking where have all the people gone in the accounts of "popular political mobilization," Jorg Nagler reinserting slavery into the military history of the American Revolution, Wolfgang Kruse exploring the shifting meanings of the levee en masse, Donatus Dusterhaus examining the role of religion in Alsace's revolutionary experience, Karen Hagemann ascribing a new meaning to masculinity, Marion Breuning comparing Washington and Baltimore during the War of 1812, Katherine Aaslestad comparing the devastating effect of Napoleonic warfare on neutrality and economics in north European states and Mary Favret employing literary sources to reconstruct everyday attitudes in Britain to illustrate the preoccupation with war-related issues.
To meet this crisis the National Convention adopted the levee en masse, a total mobilization of France's resources, men, materiel, and money in order to wage war.
Statements about the centrality of nationhood do not noticeably stand out in contemporary letters and recollections, if these qualitative and quantitative profiles are correct.(1) Nor does Royster reckon with such putative cultural determinants as the Celtic factor, which some have claimed affected the battlefield behavior--and rates of carnage--among offensive-minded, hard-charging Southerners.(2) There is nothing on the massive size of Civil War armies, both as a reflection of Napoleon's utilization of the levee en masse and as a source of the Civil War's incredible scale of destruction.
As Dominic Lieven has recently and brilliantly demonstrated, Imperial Russia could not emulate the Napoleonic levee en masse and Bonaparte's tactics nor could it hope to win at the beginning of the 1812 campaign by fighting Napoleon's preferred major pitched battle.
Historians have long seen in the August 1793 Levee en Masse the idea of a society completely mobilized for war.
Ever since Michelet, as Owen Connelly notes in his article, historians have reflected on or indeed shaped the myth of the levee en masse, the rise of the people or nation in arms against which the forces of tyranny could not stand.
Most important is the 21st century's levee en masse, a mass networked mobilization that emerges from cyber-space with a direct impact on physical reality.