Researchers then dutifully documented that chimps can interpret abstract lexigrams
on keyboards and arrange them in meaningful sequences.
Lexigrams (Set C) were created by combining three graphical elements (e.g., a triangle, a horizontal line) from a small set of choices, through procedures described by Romski and her colleagues (1996).
It may be that the unsuccessful participants did not detect the difference between the novel and baseline visual comparison stimuli, but that seems unlikely given the fairly gross differences between the lexigrams to be selected and the Mayer-Johnson symbols to be excluded.
They investigate these participants' ability to form equivalence classes across objects, spoken words and lexigrams
. Two preschool children and five adults, three who could speak and two who could not, demonstrated transitivity and symmetry.
Instructors could include others, such as pictograms SYMS and OAKLAN, PREMACK cards, lexigrams and several SIGSYM systems.
HAPPY includes the most used graphic sign systems by Europeans: PIC (Pictogram Idiogram Communication), PCS (Picture Communication Symbols), Bliss and Rebus, and, as immediate extensions, pictograms SYMS and OAKLAN, PREMACK cards, lexigrams, and several SIGSYM systems.
Over the years, several studies have used a stimulus equivalence paradigm to teach simple reading skills (Sidman, Cresson, & Willson-Morris, 1974) as well as a variety of other practical skills to individuals with disabilities including manual signing (Osborne & Gatch, 1989; VanBiervliet, 1977); pre-arithmetic skills (Gast, Vanbiervliet, & Spradlin, 1979); spelling (Stromer & Mackay, 1992, 1993; Mackay, 1985); name-face matching (Cowley, Green, & Braunling-McMorrow, 1992); shopping skills (Taylor & O'Reilly, 2000); monetary skills (McDonagh, McIlvane, & Stoddard, 1984); relations among objects, spoken words, and lexigrams (Brady & McLean, 2000); and relations among consonants, spoken words, and pictures (Carr et al., 2000).
Recently, Brady and McLean (2000) examined whether 4 individuals with severe developmental disabilities and limited verbal repertoires were able to demonstrate equivalence relations with objects, spoken words, and lexigrams. Participants scored between 2 years 8 months and 4 years 2 months on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (Dunn & Dunn, 1981); they were able to demonstrate rudimentary tacting skills by using gestures, but could not communicate vocally (i.e., spoken words or augmentative communication).
A chimpanzee's (Pan troglodytes) long-term retention of lexigrams
. Animal Learning and Behavior, 28, 201-207.
Nine colors, nine lexigrams, and six Chinese characters were used.
Identity matching-to-sample training was conducted using three colors and three lexigrams for each stimulus set.
Given the presentation of a sample visual food, selection of the corresponding lexigram
from an array of lexigrams
produced a taste of that food (cf.