In males, the N-terminal region and the LRR1-LRR7 repeats are essential for the high affinity binding of human CG (hCG), which stimulates the production of testosterone and maturation of fetal Leydig cells
during early embryogenesis.
Where N(cells) is the number of the cells, V(structure) is the volume of epithelium for the cells of germinal layer, and the volume of interstitial tissue for Leydig cells
The subcutaneous tissue consists largely of loose fibrous connective tissue containing interwoven smooth muscle cells, Leydig cells
, and hemolymphatic vessels.
Well-differentiated SLCTs are benign and are typically easily recognizable by the presence of open Sertoli cell tubules and admixed clusters of Leydig cells
in the intervening stroma (Figure 12, A).
Remarkably, abnormal spermatozoa were much higher in the group received 5mg than that of 10mg.The histological profile revealed degenerative changes in testes of treated pigeons with elongated and irregular diameter of seminiferous tubules, degenerative of Sertoli cells, severe atrophy of Leydig cells
and pronounced decrease in the interstitial space.
In-depth study of gene expression revealed that a mechanism of transcriptional repression occurred in Sertoli cells and Leydig cells
suppressing their endocrine capabilities and causing down regulation of testicular steroidogenesis.4 An increased trend in infertility cases has been reported in literature with 10-15% young couples affected in total out of which 50% of cases were attributed to male factor problems.5 Moreover, since ibuprofen is a commonly prescribed analgesic, there is a concern that women unaware of their pregnancy might overuse the drug in the first trimester.
The INSL3 hormone is a marker of testicular Leydig cells
in the post-pubertal testis.
Testicular Leydig's cell hyperplasia (LCH) is an uncommon benign entity, characterized by an increased number of Leydig cells
and detected as small, multifocal, and often bilateral testicular nodules.
Testosterone is synthesized by the Leydig cells
of the testis.
Therefore, the increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([[[Ca.sup.2+]].sub.i]) due to P2X receptor activation is one of the processes that can enhance steroidogenesis in Leydig cells
. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) has also been taken as a global modulator of this process.
The synthesis of sex steroid hormones, testosterone and estrogen, in the testis is primarily occurred within Leydig cells
and requires a series of actions of steroidogenic enzymes .
There is still debate concerning the carcinogenesis of primary testicular carcinoid tumors since the presence of NE cells in the testis has not been yet described with hypotheses postulating the origin to be the same precursor cell as Leydig cells
, while others attributing it to a chromosomal abnormality [7, 13].