According to its different targets acting on the organism, the conotoxins can be divided into three categories : (1) acting on voltage-gated ion channels, (2) acting on the ligand-gated ion channel
, and (3) acting on other receptors.
PAT-2 (proton/amino acid symporter member 2, also called solute carrier family 36 member 2, slc36a2), and P2RX5 (purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel
5) were specific for thermogenic adipocytes (Fig.
It describes the structure of the brain protein, called a ligand-gated ion channel
, that is a key enabler of many of the primary physiological and behavioral effects of alcohol.
A principal component of the NMJ is the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), a ligand-gated ion channel
consisting of homologous subunits in the stoichiometry of 2a1(?1Se in the adult form or 2[[alpha].sub.1][[beta].sub.1][delta][epsilon] in the fetal form.
Expression of TRPM8 receptor on presynaptic Ca2+ stores, a novel localization for this ligand-gated ion channel
, is also strongly suggested.
All of these nAChRs belong to a family of receptors that are collectively called ligand-gated ion channel
Looking in turn at ligand-gated ion channels
, G protein-coupled receptors, and radioligand binding, he consider such topics as the affinity and efficacy of orthosteric ligands at ligand-gated ion channels
, the analysis of allosteric interactions at ligand-gated ion channels
, the affinity and efficacy of the agonist-receptor-G-protein interaction, analyzing agonism and inverse agonism in signaling pathways that exhibit constitutive activity, and analyzing drug-receptor interaction using radioligand binding assays on G protein-coupled receptors.
The glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) is a member of the "Cys-loop" superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels
. GluCls mediate synaptic inhibition in neurons and are expressed extra-junctionally in striated muscles.
Our targets in this endeavor, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and related ligand-gated ion channels
, are widely distributed throughout the periphery, autonomic ganglia, and neuromuscular junction.
Nicotine initiates its action by competitively binding at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), ligand-gated ion channels
on the cell membrane.
The cys-loop family of ligand-gated ion channels
(LGICs) consists of the nicotinic acetylcholine, serotonin type-3 (5-HT3), glycine, and GAB[A.sub.A] receptors and is responsible for mediating rapid neurotransmission in the CNS and PNS.