Linderae radix is a traditional Chinese medicine extracted from the tubers of Lindera
aggregata (Sims) Kosterm, which contains sesquiterpene lactones (17) and alkaloids (18), and has anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting NF-[kappa]B and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation (19).
montana)]', Forested swamp--forest with mostly closed canopy but overlaying broad areas of shrubby or herbaceous wetlands; Shrub-dominated swamp--open wetlands lacking a closed canopy and dominated by dense winterberry (Ilex verticillata), spicebush (Lindera
benzoin), or buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis); and Old field--open habitats dominated by grasses and forbs but invaded, to varying degrees, by woody shrubs.
* Instead of forsythia, enjoy the early season yellow flowers of spicebush (Lindera
benzoin), the major host for the spicebush swallowtail.
Caption: Clockwise from top left: Soft, pubescent leaves of black birch (Betula lenta) emerging from a bud; The soft, silvery hairs of newly bloomed catkins (flowers) of a willow (Satix sp.), often referred to as a "pussy willow," trap heat from the sun, which aids the development of reproductive structures; The small, vibrant female flower of a hazelnut (Corylus sp.); A flower bud opening on spicebush (Lindera
benzoin), a woody shrub
Xu, "Studies on flavonoids from the leaves of Lindera
aggregata," Journal of Chinese Medicinal Materials, vol.
Growth and photosynthetic responses of the federally endangered shrub, Lindera
melissifolia (Lauraceae), to varied light environments.
Lucidone (a naturally occurring cyclopentenedione in Lindera
sp.) reduces ethanol-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells  by inducing Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response via profound upregulation of HO-1.
Querfeld, "A Lindera
obtusiloba extract blocks calcium-/phosphate-induced transdifferentiation and calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells and interferes with matrix metalloproteinase-2 and metalloproteinase-9 and NF-[kappa]B," Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol.
The active ingredients in UriVaRx are Cratevox stem bark, Horsetail herb and Lindera