is an upright, deciduous, multistemmed shrub indigenous throughout the eastern U.S.
Shrub and understory species include Acer negundo, Aesculus glabra, Asimina triloba (which occurred in large-sized stands primarily on the west side of the woods), Carpinus caroliniana, Cephalanthus occidentalis (bordering wet areas), Cornus drummondii (especially along the edge), Crataegus spp., Euonymus atropurpureus, Gleditsia triacanthos, Gymnocladus dioica, Ilex verticillata, Lindera benzoin
(in wetter areas), Ostrya virginiana, Prunus serotina, P.
saccharinum 0, 0, 0 0, 0, 2 Asimina triloba 3, 4, 4 4, 2, 0 Celtis occidentalis 3, 3, 2 0, 4, 0 Lindera benzoin
2, 2, 1 +, 0, 0 Morus rubra 1, 1, 0 0, 0, 0 Ostrya virginica 0, 1, 0 0, 0, 0 Parthenocissus quinquefolia 0, 1, 0 +, +, + Platanus occidentalis 2, 0, 4 5, 0, 0 Staphylea trifolia 0, 0, 0 1, 0, 0 Toxicodendron radicans 0, 1, 0 0, +, 0 Vitis sp.
montana)]', Forested swamp--forest with mostly closed canopy but overlaying broad areas of shrubby or herbaceous wetlands; Shrub-dominated swamp--open wetlands lacking a closed canopy and dominated by dense winterberry (Ilex verticillata), spicebush (Lindera benzoin
), or buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis); and Old field--open habitats dominated by grasses and forbs but invaded, to varying degrees, by woody shrubs.
* Instead of forsythia, enjoy the early season yellow flowers of spicebush (Lindera benzoin
), the major host for the spicebush swallowtail.
The fen was well shaded by sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) , Arizona walnut (Juglans major), bald cypress (Taxodium distichum), and spicebush (Lindera benzoin
Since the introduction of the beetle, the laurel wilt pathogen has been detected in the following Lauraceae species: redbay (Persea borbonia [L.] Spreng.), avocado (Persea americana Mill.), swampbay (Persea palustris [Raf.] Sarg.), silkbay (Persea humilis Nash), sassafras (Sassafras albidum [Nutt.] Nees), northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin
[L.] Blume), pondspice (Litsea aestivalis [L.] Fernald), pondberry (Lindera melissifolia [Walter] Blume), and camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora [L.] J.
*** Lindera benzoin
is a tree native to North America.
Common understory species included blueberry Vaccinium spp., witch hazel Hamamelis virginiana, dogwood Cornus spp., common spicebush Lindera benzoin
, mountain laurel Kalmia latifolia, raspberry Rubus spp., maple-leaved viburnum Viburnum acerifolium, poison ivy Rhus radicans and greenbriar Smilax spp.
Add a plant or two of Abeliophyllum distichum, (White forsythia), Spicebush (Lindera benzoin
), Pieris (Andromeda) with clusters of lily-of-the-valley-like flowers above evergreen foliage, include Amelanchier (Shadbush), mix in a liberal dose of Azaleas and Rhododendrons and you have the makings of a colorful welcome to the spring season.
Native woody understory shrubs include Asimina triloba (Paw Paw) and Lindera benzoin
The American spicebush (Lindera benzoin
) is a native shrub that displays clusters of tiny, greenish-yellow flowers in March and April before its leaves appear.